Bush, William S., 1967-

Who gets a childhood? : race and juvenile justice in twentieth-century Texas / William S. Bush. - Athens, Ga. : University of Georgia Press, ©2010. - [xii], 257 pages : illustrations, photographs, map ; 23 cm. - Politics and culture in the twentieth-century South . - Politics and culture in the twentieth-century South. .

Includes bibliographical references and index.

Race, childhood, and juvenile justice history -- The other lost generation: reform and resistance in the juvenile training schools, 1907-1929 -- Socializing delinquency: child welfare, mental health, and the critique of institutions, 1929-1949 -- Juvenile rehabilitation and the color line: the training school for Black delinquent girls, 1943-1950 -- James Dean and Jim Crow: the failure of reform and the racialization of delinquency in the 1950s -- "Hard to reach" : the politics of delinquency prevention in postwar Houston -- Circling the wagons: the struggle over the Texas Youth Council, 1965-1971 -- Creating a right to treatment: Morales v. Turman, 1971-1988 -- The new American dilemma.

Using Texas as a case study for understanding change in the American juvenile justice system over the past century, the author tells the story of three cycles of scandal, reform, and retrenchment, each of which played out in ways that tended to extend the privileges of a protected childhood to white middle- and upper-class youth, while denying those protections to blacks, Latinos, and poor whites. On the forefront of both progressive and "get tough" reform campaigns, Texas has led national policy shifts in the treatment of delinquent youth to a surprising degree. Changes in the legal system have included the development of courts devoted exclusively to young offenders, the expanded legal application of psychological expertise, and the rise of the children's rights movement. At the same time, broader cultural ideas about adolescence have also changed. Yet the author demonstrates that as the notion of the teenager gained currency after World War II, white, middle-class teen criminals were increasingly depicted as suffering from curable emotional disorders even as the rate of incarceration rose sharply for black, Latino, and poor teens. He argues that despite the struggles of reformers, child advocates, parents, and youths themselves to make juvenile justice live up to its ideal of offering young people a second chance, the story of twentieth-century juvenile justice in large part boils down to the exclusion of poor and nonwhite youth from modern categories of childhood and adolescence.

9780820337623 0820337625


015646682 Uk

Juvenile justice, Administration of--History--Texas--20th century.
Discrimination in juvenile justice administration--History--Texas--20th century.
Juvenile delinquents--History--Texas--20th century.

HV9105.T4 / B87 2010