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Coral Reefs at the Crossroads.

By: Hubbard, Dennis K.
Contributor(s): Rogers, Caroline S | Lipps, Jere H | Stanley, Jr., George D.
Material type: TextTextSeries: eBooks on Demand.Coral Reefs of the World: Publisher: Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands, 2016Copyright date: ©2016Description: 1 online resource (314 pages).Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9789401775670.Subject(s): Environmental managementGenre/Form: Electronic books.Additional physical formats: Print version:: Coral Reefs at the CrossroadsDDC classification: 577.789 Online resources: Click here to view this ebook.
Contents:
Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- Contributors -- Abbreviations and Acronyms -- 1: Coral Reefs at the Crossroads - An Introduction -- 1.1 Coming Together -- 1.2 Our Changing View -- 1.3 A Brief Look Back -- 1.4 Where Are WeNow? -- 1.5 Where Are We Headed? -- References -- 2: Coral Calcification and Ocean Acidification -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.1.1 Basic Coral Anatomy and Physiology -- 2.1.2 Coral Morphology -- 2.1.3 Models of Light Enhanced Calcification (LEC) -- 2.1.4 Other Models of Coral Calcification -- 2.1.5 Chemistry of Ocean Acidification, Photosynthesis and Calcification -- 2.1.6 Conceptual Stumbling Blocks -- 2.1.7 The Concept of Aragonite Saturation State (Omegaarag) in Relation to Ocean Acidification (OA) -- 2.1.8 Relationship Between arag, the [DIC]:[H+] Ratio and Coral Calcification (Gnet) -- 2.1.9 Boundary Layers (BL) and Material Exchange Between the Water Column and the Coral -- 2.1.10 Material Fluxes -- 2.2 The Two-Compartment Proton Flux Model -- 2.2.1 Description of the Two-Compartment Proton Flux Model -- 2.2.2 Application of Model to Other Coral Morphologies -- 2.3 Ocean Acidification -- 2.3.1 Attempts to Explain How OA Reduces Coral Calcification -- 2.3.2 Shortcomings of the arag Model (i.e., CO32- Limitation) in Studies of Coral Calcification -- 2.3.3 Increasing Evidence that the arag Model for Coral and Coral Reefs Is Flawed -- 2.3.4 Future Changes in Oceanic Chemistry Due to Human Activity -- 2.3.5 Future Regional Changes in Reef Carbonate Production and Dissolution Rates Due to Increasing OA -- 2.4 Biological Control or Physical Control of Calcification? -- 2.5 Interaction Between Environmental and Biological Factors -- 2.5.1 Interaction Between OA and Coral-Growth Rate -- 2.5.2 Temperature and OA -- 2.5.3 Water Motion and Irradiance -- 2.6 Coral Nutrition -- 2.6.1 Inorganic Nutrients.
2.6.2 Organic Nutrient Heterotrophy -- 2.6.3 Organic vs Inorganic Nutrients and Coral Calcification -- 2.7 Acclimatization and Adaptation -- 2.8 Resolving Unexplained Paradoxes with New Insights -- 2.8.1 Paradox of Decreasing Coral Growth Rate in the Face of Increasing HCO3- and Increasing DIC -- 2.8.2 Paradox of Rich Coral Reefs Growing Under Low arag Conditions -- 2.8.3 Paradox of Rapid LEC in Areas of The Coral Colony That Do Not Contain Photosynthetic Zooxanthellae -- 2.9 Alteration of Seawater Chemistry by Corals Over the Diurnal Cycle -- 2.9.1 Phase Shifts -- 2.9.2 Night Calcification -- 2.9.3 Diurnal Changes in Concentration of AT, pH, arag and DO -- 2.10 Back to the Basics -- 2.11 Conclusions -- 2.12 Future Research Directions -- References -- 3: Photosymbiosis in Past and Present Reefs -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Photosymbioses in Modern, Shallow-Water Carbonate Environments -- 3.2.1 Photosymbiosis in Reef Organisms -- 3.2.2 Photosymbiosis in Hypercalcifiers and Bleaching -- 3.3 Photosymbiosis in Ancient Fossils and Reef Environments -- 3.4 Important Photosymbiotic Taxa in Ancient Reef Ecosystems -- 3.4.1 Foraminifera -- 3.4.2 Calcified Sponges -- 3.4.3 Corals -- 3.4.4 Bryozoans -- 3.4.5 Brachiopods -- 3.4.6 Mollusks -- 3.5 Summary and Conclusions -- References -- 4: Bioerosion on Modern Reefs: Impacts and Responses Under Changing Ecological and Environmental Conditions -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 The Reef Bioerosion Process: Key Species and Mechanisms of Bioerosion -- 4.3 Endolithic Bioerosion -- 4.3.1 Sponges -- 4.3.2 Molluscs -- 4.3.3 Polychaete and Sipunculan Worms -- 4.3.4 Microbioerosion -- 4.4 External Bioerosion -- 4.4.1 Echinoids -- 4.4.2 Parrotfish and Other Fishes -- 4.4.3 Molluscs - Gastropods/Chitons -- 4.5 Spatial Variations in Reef Bioerosion -- 4.5.1 Regional-Scale Variation -- 4.5.2 Habitat-Scale Variation.
4.5.3 Intra-Habitat Variation -- 4.6 The Role of Bioerosion in Reef Structural Development -- 4.7 Impacts of Ecological and Environmental Change: Ecological Feedbacks and the Changing Role of Bioerosion in Contemporary R... -- 4.7.1 Impacts of Eutrophication -- 4.7.2 Impacts of Sedimentation -- 4.7.3 Impacts of Climatic Change -- 4.7.4 Other Ecological and Environmental Impacts -- 4.8 Quantifying the Role of Bioerosion: Carbonate Budgets and the Changing Face of Reef Accretion -- 4.9 Summary and Key Research Gaps -- References -- 5: Sponge Contributions to the Geology and Biology of Reefs: Past, Present, and Future -- 5.1 Introduction: Sponges and Reefs Have Been Linked from the Beginning -- 5.2 The Nature of Sponges -- 5.3 Species Diversity of Sponges on Present-Day Reefs -- 5.4 Geological Roles of Sponges: Reef Frame-Building and Fortifying -- 5.4.1 Archaeocyatha -- 5.4.2 Hypercalcified Sponges -- 5.4.3 Reef-Building Sponges with Siliceous Skeletons: Lithistids and Hexactinellids -- 5.5 Geological Roles of Sponges: Promoting Reef-Frame Integrity, Increasing Coral Survival, and Facilitating Repair -- 5.5.1 Increasing Coral Survival by Adhering Living Corals to the Reef and Protecting Exposed Skeletons Against Eroders -- 5.5.2 Rubble Stabilization: A Key Step in Reef Recovery After Physical Damage -- 5.5.3 Improving Reef Restoration by Harnessing the Ability of Sponges to Bind Rubble -- 5.6 Geological Roles of Sponges: Bioerosion -- 5.7 Biological Roles of Sponges: Overgrowth of Living and Dead Coral -- 5.8 Biological Roles of Sponges: Water-Column Influences -- 5.8.1 Maintaining Water Clarity -- 5.8.2 Influences on Dissolved Organic and Inorganic Water-Column Components -- 5.9 Biological Roles of Sponges: Providing Shelter and Food -- 5.9.1 Animal and Plant Guests of Sponges -- 5.9.2 Consumers of Sponges.
5.10 Future of Sponges on Coral Reefs: Assessing and Ascribing Causes to Increases and Decreases -- 5.10.1 Inappropriate Methods for Assessing and Monitoring Sponges Yield Data That Are Difficult to Interpret -- 5.10.2 Lumping Together Sponges of Diverse Talents, Vulnerabilities, and Relationships with Corals -- 5.10.3 Are ``Sponges´´ Overwhelming Coral Reefs? -- 5.10.4 Data on Sponge Increases and Decreases -- 5.10.5 Sponge Dynamics Documented by Full Censuses in Time Series -- 5.11 Summary: What Would Happen to Coral Reefs if Sponges Were Entirely Deleted? -- References -- 6: The Changing Face of Reef Building -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.1.1 Changing Perceptions Changing Strategies -- 6.1.2 The Road Ahead -- 6.2 What Do We (Think We) ``Know´´? -- 6.2.1 Reefs Without Us: The Late Quaternary -- 6.2.2 The Variable Nature of Sea-Level Rise -- 6.2.3 Looking to the Future: How Good Are Our Reef Models? -- 6.2.4 So What Do We Still Need to Know? -- 6.3 Carbonate Cycling and Reef Building -- 6.4 A Review of Sea-Level Basics -- 6.4.1 Phanerozoic Sea Level -- 6.4.2 Sea Level in the Holocene -- 6.4.3 Historic Sea-Level Change -- 6.4.4 Regional Variations in Recent Sea-Level Rise -- 6.4.5 The Lessons to Be Learned -- 6.5 Corals Grow Reefs Build -- 6.5.1 Changing Perspectives -- 6.5.2 How Fast Do Reefs Build? -- 6.5.3 Water Depth and Reef Building -- 6.5.4 A Possible Role for Bioerosion -- 6.5.5 Sediment Redistribution and Export -- 6.5.6 Relevance to the Carbonate Budget -- 6.5.7 The Zonation Conundrum -- 6.6 The Path Forward -- 6.6.1 What Should We Be Measuring? -- 6.6.2 Can Reefs Keep Up? -- 6.6.3 How Will This Impact Those Who Depend on Reefs? -- 6.6.4 Now More Than Ever -- References -- 7: Stability of Reef-Coral Assemblages in the Quaternary -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 Stability and Persistence of Coral Reefs -- 7.3 The Pattern -- 7.4 The Problem.
7.5 Climatic Variability in the Tropics During Glacial-Interglacial Cycles -- 7.6 Temperature -- 7.7 Reefs on the Edge -- 7.8 Sea Level -- 7.9 A Coral´s-Eye View -- 7.10 The Shattering of Ecological and Evolutionary Stability? -- 7.11 Summary -- References -- 8: Reefs Through Time: An Evolutionary View -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.1.1 What Are Carbonate Reefs and Platforms? -- 8.1.2 Are Reefs Fragile Ecosystems? -- 8.2 Ancient Reefs -- 8.2.1 Precambrian Reefs: Earth´s Most Ancient Photosynthetic Reefs (3.4-0.541Ga) -- 8.2.2 Early Paleozoic Reefs: The Beginnings of Reefs (541-443Ma) -- 8.2.3 Mid-Paleozoic Reefs. The First Coral-Reef Ecosystems (443-359Ma) -- 8.2.4 Late Paleozoic Reefs After Extinction (359-252my) -- 8.2.5 Mesozoic Reefs: The First Modern Coral Reefs? (252-66Ma) -- 8.2.6 Cenozoic Reefs (66Ma-Present) -- 8.3 Extinction of Reef Organisms and the Reefs They Built in Geologic Time -- 8.3.1 Extraterrestrial Impacts -- 8.3.2 Sea-Level Changes -- 8.3.3 CO2 Decline and Climate Cooling -- 8.3.4 Volcanism, CO2 Increases, Climate Warming, Ocean Acidification and Anoxia -- 8.3.5 The Role of Photoendosymbiosis in Extinctions and Diversifications -- 8.3.6 Extinctions -- 8.4 The Future of Reefs -- References -- 9: Climate Change, Ocean Chemistry, and the Evolution of Reefs Through Time -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Physical, Chemical, and Biological Drivers of Reef Building -- 9.2.1 Light, Turbidity, and Sedimentation -- 9.2.2 Temperature -- 9.2.3 Nutrients, Herbivory, and Bioerosion -- 9.2.4 Water Motion and Storm Damage -- 9.2.5 Carbonate Chemistry -- 9.2.6 Sea-Level Rise -- 9.3 The Rise and Fall of Reefs Through Time -- 9.3.1 The First Reefs -- 9.3.2 The Paleozoic Rise of Metazoan Reefs -- 9.3.3 Origination and Diversification of the Scleractinia -- 9.3.4 Reef Building Through the Mesozoic -- 9.3.5 Coral-Reef Building Through the Cenozoic.
9.4 Climate Change and Reef Building in the Past.
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Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- Contributors -- Abbreviations and Acronyms -- 1: Coral Reefs at the Crossroads - An Introduction -- 1.1 Coming Together -- 1.2 Our Changing View -- 1.3 A Brief Look Back -- 1.4 Where Are WeNow? -- 1.5 Where Are We Headed? -- References -- 2: Coral Calcification and Ocean Acidification -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.1.1 Basic Coral Anatomy and Physiology -- 2.1.2 Coral Morphology -- 2.1.3 Models of Light Enhanced Calcification (LEC) -- 2.1.4 Other Models of Coral Calcification -- 2.1.5 Chemistry of Ocean Acidification, Photosynthesis and Calcification -- 2.1.6 Conceptual Stumbling Blocks -- 2.1.7 The Concept of Aragonite Saturation State (Omegaarag) in Relation to Ocean Acidification (OA) -- 2.1.8 Relationship Between arag, the [DIC]:[H+] Ratio and Coral Calcification (Gnet) -- 2.1.9 Boundary Layers (BL) and Material Exchange Between the Water Column and the Coral -- 2.1.10 Material Fluxes -- 2.2 The Two-Compartment Proton Flux Model -- 2.2.1 Description of the Two-Compartment Proton Flux Model -- 2.2.2 Application of Model to Other Coral Morphologies -- 2.3 Ocean Acidification -- 2.3.1 Attempts to Explain How OA Reduces Coral Calcification -- 2.3.2 Shortcomings of the arag Model (i.e., CO32- Limitation) in Studies of Coral Calcification -- 2.3.3 Increasing Evidence that the arag Model for Coral and Coral Reefs Is Flawed -- 2.3.4 Future Changes in Oceanic Chemistry Due to Human Activity -- 2.3.5 Future Regional Changes in Reef Carbonate Production and Dissolution Rates Due to Increasing OA -- 2.4 Biological Control or Physical Control of Calcification? -- 2.5 Interaction Between Environmental and Biological Factors -- 2.5.1 Interaction Between OA and Coral-Growth Rate -- 2.5.2 Temperature and OA -- 2.5.3 Water Motion and Irradiance -- 2.6 Coral Nutrition -- 2.6.1 Inorganic Nutrients.

2.6.2 Organic Nutrient Heterotrophy -- 2.6.3 Organic vs Inorganic Nutrients and Coral Calcification -- 2.7 Acclimatization and Adaptation -- 2.8 Resolving Unexplained Paradoxes with New Insights -- 2.8.1 Paradox of Decreasing Coral Growth Rate in the Face of Increasing HCO3- and Increasing DIC -- 2.8.2 Paradox of Rich Coral Reefs Growing Under Low arag Conditions -- 2.8.3 Paradox of Rapid LEC in Areas of The Coral Colony That Do Not Contain Photosynthetic Zooxanthellae -- 2.9 Alteration of Seawater Chemistry by Corals Over the Diurnal Cycle -- 2.9.1 Phase Shifts -- 2.9.2 Night Calcification -- 2.9.3 Diurnal Changes in Concentration of AT, pH, arag and DO -- 2.10 Back to the Basics -- 2.11 Conclusions -- 2.12 Future Research Directions -- References -- 3: Photosymbiosis in Past and Present Reefs -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Photosymbioses in Modern, Shallow-Water Carbonate Environments -- 3.2.1 Photosymbiosis in Reef Organisms -- 3.2.2 Photosymbiosis in Hypercalcifiers and Bleaching -- 3.3 Photosymbiosis in Ancient Fossils and Reef Environments -- 3.4 Important Photosymbiotic Taxa in Ancient Reef Ecosystems -- 3.4.1 Foraminifera -- 3.4.2 Calcified Sponges -- 3.4.3 Corals -- 3.4.4 Bryozoans -- 3.4.5 Brachiopods -- 3.4.6 Mollusks -- 3.5 Summary and Conclusions -- References -- 4: Bioerosion on Modern Reefs: Impacts and Responses Under Changing Ecological and Environmental Conditions -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 The Reef Bioerosion Process: Key Species and Mechanisms of Bioerosion -- 4.3 Endolithic Bioerosion -- 4.3.1 Sponges -- 4.3.2 Molluscs -- 4.3.3 Polychaete and Sipunculan Worms -- 4.3.4 Microbioerosion -- 4.4 External Bioerosion -- 4.4.1 Echinoids -- 4.4.2 Parrotfish and Other Fishes -- 4.4.3 Molluscs - Gastropods/Chitons -- 4.5 Spatial Variations in Reef Bioerosion -- 4.5.1 Regional-Scale Variation -- 4.5.2 Habitat-Scale Variation.

4.5.3 Intra-Habitat Variation -- 4.6 The Role of Bioerosion in Reef Structural Development -- 4.7 Impacts of Ecological and Environmental Change: Ecological Feedbacks and the Changing Role of Bioerosion in Contemporary R... -- 4.7.1 Impacts of Eutrophication -- 4.7.2 Impacts of Sedimentation -- 4.7.3 Impacts of Climatic Change -- 4.7.4 Other Ecological and Environmental Impacts -- 4.8 Quantifying the Role of Bioerosion: Carbonate Budgets and the Changing Face of Reef Accretion -- 4.9 Summary and Key Research Gaps -- References -- 5: Sponge Contributions to the Geology and Biology of Reefs: Past, Present, and Future -- 5.1 Introduction: Sponges and Reefs Have Been Linked from the Beginning -- 5.2 The Nature of Sponges -- 5.3 Species Diversity of Sponges on Present-Day Reefs -- 5.4 Geological Roles of Sponges: Reef Frame-Building and Fortifying -- 5.4.1 Archaeocyatha -- 5.4.2 Hypercalcified Sponges -- 5.4.3 Reef-Building Sponges with Siliceous Skeletons: Lithistids and Hexactinellids -- 5.5 Geological Roles of Sponges: Promoting Reef-Frame Integrity, Increasing Coral Survival, and Facilitating Repair -- 5.5.1 Increasing Coral Survival by Adhering Living Corals to the Reef and Protecting Exposed Skeletons Against Eroders -- 5.5.2 Rubble Stabilization: A Key Step in Reef Recovery After Physical Damage -- 5.5.3 Improving Reef Restoration by Harnessing the Ability of Sponges to Bind Rubble -- 5.6 Geological Roles of Sponges: Bioerosion -- 5.7 Biological Roles of Sponges: Overgrowth of Living and Dead Coral -- 5.8 Biological Roles of Sponges: Water-Column Influences -- 5.8.1 Maintaining Water Clarity -- 5.8.2 Influences on Dissolved Organic and Inorganic Water-Column Components -- 5.9 Biological Roles of Sponges: Providing Shelter and Food -- 5.9.1 Animal and Plant Guests of Sponges -- 5.9.2 Consumers of Sponges.

5.10 Future of Sponges on Coral Reefs: Assessing and Ascribing Causes to Increases and Decreases -- 5.10.1 Inappropriate Methods for Assessing and Monitoring Sponges Yield Data That Are Difficult to Interpret -- 5.10.2 Lumping Together Sponges of Diverse Talents, Vulnerabilities, and Relationships with Corals -- 5.10.3 Are ``Sponges´´ Overwhelming Coral Reefs? -- 5.10.4 Data on Sponge Increases and Decreases -- 5.10.5 Sponge Dynamics Documented by Full Censuses in Time Series -- 5.11 Summary: What Would Happen to Coral Reefs if Sponges Were Entirely Deleted? -- References -- 6: The Changing Face of Reef Building -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.1.1 Changing Perceptions Changing Strategies -- 6.1.2 The Road Ahead -- 6.2 What Do We (Think We) ``Know´´? -- 6.2.1 Reefs Without Us: The Late Quaternary -- 6.2.2 The Variable Nature of Sea-Level Rise -- 6.2.3 Looking to the Future: How Good Are Our Reef Models? -- 6.2.4 So What Do We Still Need to Know? -- 6.3 Carbonate Cycling and Reef Building -- 6.4 A Review of Sea-Level Basics -- 6.4.1 Phanerozoic Sea Level -- 6.4.2 Sea Level in the Holocene -- 6.4.3 Historic Sea-Level Change -- 6.4.4 Regional Variations in Recent Sea-Level Rise -- 6.4.5 The Lessons to Be Learned -- 6.5 Corals Grow Reefs Build -- 6.5.1 Changing Perspectives -- 6.5.2 How Fast Do Reefs Build? -- 6.5.3 Water Depth and Reef Building -- 6.5.4 A Possible Role for Bioerosion -- 6.5.5 Sediment Redistribution and Export -- 6.5.6 Relevance to the Carbonate Budget -- 6.5.7 The Zonation Conundrum -- 6.6 The Path Forward -- 6.6.1 What Should We Be Measuring? -- 6.6.2 Can Reefs Keep Up? -- 6.6.3 How Will This Impact Those Who Depend on Reefs? -- 6.6.4 Now More Than Ever -- References -- 7: Stability of Reef-Coral Assemblages in the Quaternary -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 Stability and Persistence of Coral Reefs -- 7.3 The Pattern -- 7.4 The Problem.

7.5 Climatic Variability in the Tropics During Glacial-Interglacial Cycles -- 7.6 Temperature -- 7.7 Reefs on the Edge -- 7.8 Sea Level -- 7.9 A Coral´s-Eye View -- 7.10 The Shattering of Ecological and Evolutionary Stability? -- 7.11 Summary -- References -- 8: Reefs Through Time: An Evolutionary View -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.1.1 What Are Carbonate Reefs and Platforms? -- 8.1.2 Are Reefs Fragile Ecosystems? -- 8.2 Ancient Reefs -- 8.2.1 Precambrian Reefs: Earth´s Most Ancient Photosynthetic Reefs (3.4-0.541Ga) -- 8.2.2 Early Paleozoic Reefs: The Beginnings of Reefs (541-443Ma) -- 8.2.3 Mid-Paleozoic Reefs. The First Coral-Reef Ecosystems (443-359Ma) -- 8.2.4 Late Paleozoic Reefs After Extinction (359-252my) -- 8.2.5 Mesozoic Reefs: The First Modern Coral Reefs? (252-66Ma) -- 8.2.6 Cenozoic Reefs (66Ma-Present) -- 8.3 Extinction of Reef Organisms and the Reefs They Built in Geologic Time -- 8.3.1 Extraterrestrial Impacts -- 8.3.2 Sea-Level Changes -- 8.3.3 CO2 Decline and Climate Cooling -- 8.3.4 Volcanism, CO2 Increases, Climate Warming, Ocean Acidification and Anoxia -- 8.3.5 The Role of Photoendosymbiosis in Extinctions and Diversifications -- 8.3.6 Extinctions -- 8.4 The Future of Reefs -- References -- 9: Climate Change, Ocean Chemistry, and the Evolution of Reefs Through Time -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Physical, Chemical, and Biological Drivers of Reef Building -- 9.2.1 Light, Turbidity, and Sedimentation -- 9.2.2 Temperature -- 9.2.3 Nutrients, Herbivory, and Bioerosion -- 9.2.4 Water Motion and Storm Damage -- 9.2.5 Carbonate Chemistry -- 9.2.6 Sea-Level Rise -- 9.3 The Rise and Fall of Reefs Through Time -- 9.3.1 The First Reefs -- 9.3.2 The Paleozoic Rise of Metazoan Reefs -- 9.3.3 Origination and Diversification of the Scleractinia -- 9.3.4 Reef Building Through the Mesozoic -- 9.3.5 Coral-Reef Building Through the Cenozoic.

9.4 Climate Change and Reef Building in the Past.

Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.

Reviews provided by Syndetics

CHOICE Review

In 300 pages and 12 chapters, the multiple authors of this volume describe in great detail why coral reefs are indeed at a crossroad. The volume has a strong evolutionary and geological thrust. The chapter topics discuss photosynthesis, reef building, climate change, and other drivers of change. The last chapter provides some ideas as to how biologists, geologists, and managers might respond by monitoring these changes. Each chapter within the work begins with a short abstract and list of keywords; a list of references appears at the end of each chapter. Throughout the work, the black-and-white and color images are clear and appropriate. The index is adequate. As the volume covers a wide range of issues, this book will be useful not only to professional researchers, but even to lay readers with an interest in coral reefs. There are a large number of books about specific reef systems, particularly the Great Barrier Reef, but this volume is one of the few that examines a multitude of aspects. Summing Up: Recommended. Graduate students, faculty, professionals, and general readers. --Larry Thomas Spencer, Plymouth State University

Author notes provided by Syndetics

<p> Dennis K. Hubbard <br> Department of Geology, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH, USA</p> <p> Caroline S. Rogers<br> US Geological Survey, Wetlands and Aquatic Research Center, Caribbean Field Station, St. John, VI, USA <br> </p> Jere H. Lipps<br> John D. Cooper Archaeological and Paleontological Center, Santa Ana, CA, USA, and Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA <br> <p> George D. Stanley, Jr.<br> Department of Geosciences, The University of Montana, Missoula MT, USA <br> </p>

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