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A Class by Herself : Protective Laws for Women Workers, 1890s-1990s.

By: Woloch, Nancy.
Contributor(s): Woloch, University Nancy.
Material type: TextTextSeries: eBooks on Demand.Politics and Society in Modern America Ser: Publisher: Princeton : Princeton University Press, 2015Copyright date: ©2015Description: 1 online resource (324 pages).Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781400866366.Subject(s): Sex discrimination in employment -- Law and legislation -- United States -- History -- 20th century | Women -- Employment -- Law and legislation -- United States -- History -- 20th centuryGenre/Form: Electronic books.Additional physical formats: Print version:: A Class by Herself : Protective Laws for Women Workers, 1890s-1990sDDC classification: 344.73014133 Online resources: Click here to view this ebook.
Contents:
Cover -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- Introduction -- 1 Roots of Protection: The National Consumers' League and Progressive Reform -- Progressives Mobilize -- Florence Kelley and the NCL -- Rationales: The Perils of Pragmatism -- Roadblocks: Business and Labor -- Law : Constraint and Opportunity -- 2 Gender, Protection, and the Courts, 1895-1907 -- Freedom of Contract versus the Police Power -- A Lowell Mill: Commonwealth v. Hamilton Manufacturing Co. (1876) -- A Chicago Box Factory: Ritchie v. People (1895) -- A Utah Mine: Holden v. Hardy (1898) -- Women's Hours Laws: Pennsylvania, Washington, Nebraska -- A Utica Bakery: Lochner v. New York (1905) -- A New York Bookbindery: People v. Williams (1907) -- 3 A Class by Herself: Muller v. Oregon (1908) -- Local Roots of the Muller Case -- Muller Goes to Court -- The NCL Steps In -- The Brandeis Brief -- Curt Muller's Brief -- The Muller v. Oregon Opinion -- Assessing the Law of 1903 -- 4 Protection in Ascent, 1908-23 -- Maximum Hours Cases -- Night Work Laws -- Protecting Men -- The Minimum Wage -- War and Peace -- Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923) -- 5 Different versus Equal: The 1920s -- Alice Paul, the National Woman's Party, and the ERA -- The NCL, Social Feminism, and the Minimum Wage -- Factions Collide: The Women's Movement -- Close Combat : The Conferences -- The Women's Bureau Report of 1928 -- Did the Laws Work? Enforcement and Effectiveness -- Working Women's Voices -- 6 Transformations: The New Deal through the 1950s -- New Deal Women -- The Minimum Wage and the Revolution of 1937 -- FLSA: Protection Triumphant -- The 1940s: War and Postwar -- Bartending: Goesaert v. Cleary (1948) -- Women in Unions -- The Women's Bureau and the NWP -- 7 Trading Places: The 1960s and 1970s -- The Early 1960s: PCSW and Equal Pay -- Title VII, the EEOC, and Protective Laws.
Protection Debated: Pressure and Politics, 1965-69 -- Protection Challenged: Three Landmark Cases -- Protection Dismantled: The Courts and the States -- Closing Arguments: 1970 -- The ERA and the Women's Movement -- 8 Last Lap: Work and Pregnancy -- Pregnancy Cases: The 1970s -- The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978) -- Toward Family Leave -- The Toxic Workplace -- The Johnson Controls Decision (1991) -- Conclusion: Protection Revisited -- Looking Back: The Clash over Overtime -- Moving On: After Protection -- Acknowledgments -- Notes -- Index.
Summary: A Class by Herself explores the historical role and influence of protective legislation for American women workers, both as a step toward modern labor standards and as a barrier to equal rights. Spanning the twentieth century, the book tracks the rise and fall of women-only state protective laws-such as maximum hour laws, minimum wage laws, and night work laws-from their roots in progressive reform through the passage of New Deal labor law to the feminist attack on single-sex protective laws in the 1960s and 1970s. Nancy Woloch considers the network of institutions that promoted women-only protective laws, such as the National Consumers' League and the federal Women's Bureau; the global context in which the laws arose; the challenges that proponents faced; the rationales they espoused; the opposition that evolved; the impact of protective laws in ever-changing circumstances; and their dismantling in the wake of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Above all, Woloch examines the constitutional conversation that the laws provoked-the debates that arose in the courts and in the women's movement. Protective laws set precedents that led to the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and to current labor law; they also sustained a tradition of gendered law that abridged citizenship and impeded equality for much of the century. Drawing on decades of scholarship, institutional and legal records, and personal accounts, A Class by Herself sets forth a new narrative about the tensions inherent in women-only protective labor laws and their consequences.
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Item type Current location Call number URL Status Date due Barcode
Electronic Book UT Tyler Online
Online
KF3555 -- .W65 2015 (Browse shelf) http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uttyler/detail.action?docID=1983780 Available EBC1983780

Cover -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- Introduction -- 1 Roots of Protection: The National Consumers' League and Progressive Reform -- Progressives Mobilize -- Florence Kelley and the NCL -- Rationales: The Perils of Pragmatism -- Roadblocks: Business and Labor -- Law : Constraint and Opportunity -- 2 Gender, Protection, and the Courts, 1895-1907 -- Freedom of Contract versus the Police Power -- A Lowell Mill: Commonwealth v. Hamilton Manufacturing Co. (1876) -- A Chicago Box Factory: Ritchie v. People (1895) -- A Utah Mine: Holden v. Hardy (1898) -- Women's Hours Laws: Pennsylvania, Washington, Nebraska -- A Utica Bakery: Lochner v. New York (1905) -- A New York Bookbindery: People v. Williams (1907) -- 3 A Class by Herself: Muller v. Oregon (1908) -- Local Roots of the Muller Case -- Muller Goes to Court -- The NCL Steps In -- The Brandeis Brief -- Curt Muller's Brief -- The Muller v. Oregon Opinion -- Assessing the Law of 1903 -- 4 Protection in Ascent, 1908-23 -- Maximum Hours Cases -- Night Work Laws -- Protecting Men -- The Minimum Wage -- War and Peace -- Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923) -- 5 Different versus Equal: The 1920s -- Alice Paul, the National Woman's Party, and the ERA -- The NCL, Social Feminism, and the Minimum Wage -- Factions Collide: The Women's Movement -- Close Combat : The Conferences -- The Women's Bureau Report of 1928 -- Did the Laws Work? Enforcement and Effectiveness -- Working Women's Voices -- 6 Transformations: The New Deal through the 1950s -- New Deal Women -- The Minimum Wage and the Revolution of 1937 -- FLSA: Protection Triumphant -- The 1940s: War and Postwar -- Bartending: Goesaert v. Cleary (1948) -- Women in Unions -- The Women's Bureau and the NWP -- 7 Trading Places: The 1960s and 1970s -- The Early 1960s: PCSW and Equal Pay -- Title VII, the EEOC, and Protective Laws.

Protection Debated: Pressure and Politics, 1965-69 -- Protection Challenged: Three Landmark Cases -- Protection Dismantled: The Courts and the States -- Closing Arguments: 1970 -- The ERA and the Women's Movement -- 8 Last Lap: Work and Pregnancy -- Pregnancy Cases: The 1970s -- The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978) -- Toward Family Leave -- The Toxic Workplace -- The Johnson Controls Decision (1991) -- Conclusion: Protection Revisited -- Looking Back: The Clash over Overtime -- Moving On: After Protection -- Acknowledgments -- Notes -- Index.

A Class by Herself explores the historical role and influence of protective legislation for American women workers, both as a step toward modern labor standards and as a barrier to equal rights. Spanning the twentieth century, the book tracks the rise and fall of women-only state protective laws-such as maximum hour laws, minimum wage laws, and night work laws-from their roots in progressive reform through the passage of New Deal labor law to the feminist attack on single-sex protective laws in the 1960s and 1970s. Nancy Woloch considers the network of institutions that promoted women-only protective laws, such as the National Consumers' League and the federal Women's Bureau; the global context in which the laws arose; the challenges that proponents faced; the rationales they espoused; the opposition that evolved; the impact of protective laws in ever-changing circumstances; and their dismantling in the wake of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Above all, Woloch examines the constitutional conversation that the laws provoked-the debates that arose in the courts and in the women's movement. Protective laws set precedents that led to the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and to current labor law; they also sustained a tradition of gendered law that abridged citizenship and impeded equality for much of the century. Drawing on decades of scholarship, institutional and legal records, and personal accounts, A Class by Herself sets forth a new narrative about the tensions inherent in women-only protective labor laws and their consequences.

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Reviews provided by Syndetics

CHOICE Review

Historian Woloch (Barnard College, Columbia) analyzes the fraught history of protective laws for women workers. She skillfully synthesizes many strands of the historiography of protective legislation while making an original contribution with close analyses of the people and particulars of key court cases and decisions that shaped the reformist and legislative landscape over a century. Notions of women's dependence and difference were always in tension with impulses for equal rights in the workplace and under the law. Through the 1920s, advocates of protective legislation succeeded in advancing laws crafted and sustained by an argument of dependence yet were hopeful that women-specific laws would be the "entering wedge" for general laws applicable to all workers. A variety of tipping points served to shift momentum toward equality: women's suffrage in 1920, New Deal blanket labor legislation, the entrance of more married women with children into the workforce during and after WW II, the civil rights movement, and the inclusion of sex in Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Woloch deftly illustrates how post-1960, arguments for workplace equality based on 14th Amendment protections ultimately trumped those based on difference--but not without difficulty, as evidenced by debates over maternal health and leave policies. Summing Up: Highly recommended. All levels/libraries. --Beth English, Princeton University

Author notes provided by Syndetics

Nancy Woloch teaches history at Barnard College, Columbia University. Her books include Women and the American Experience and Muller v. Oregon: A Brief History with Documents .

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