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The Auditory System at the Cocktail Party.

By: Middlebrooks, John C.
Contributor(s): Simon, Jonathan Z | Popper, Arthur N | Fay, Richard R.
Material type: TextTextSeries: eBooks on Demand.Springer Handbook of Auditory Research: Publisher: Cham : Springer International Publishing, 2017Copyright date: ©2017Description: 1 online resource (299 pages).Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9783319516622.Subject(s): NeurobiologyAdditional physical formats: Print version:: The Auditory System at the Cocktail PartyDDC classification: 573.8 LOC classification: R-RZOnline resources: Click here to view this ebook.
Contents:
The Acoustical Society of America -- Series Preface -- Preface 1992 -- Volume Preface -- Contents -- Contributors -- 1 Ear and Brain Mechanisms for Parsing the Auditory Scene -- Abstract -- 1.1 Introduction -- 1.2 Some Central Concepts -- 1.3 Overview of the Volume -- 1.4 Ears and Brains -- References -- 2 Auditory Object Formation and Selection -- Abstract -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.1.1 The Cocktail Party: Confusing Mixtures and Limited Processing Capacity -- 2.1.2 Object-Based Attention -- 2.1.3 Heterarchical Rather Than Hierarchical Processing -- 2.1.4 A Historical Note -- 2.2 Parsing the Acoustic Scene: Auditory Object Formation -- 2.2.1 Local Spectrotemporal Cues Support "Syllable-Level" Object Formation -- 2.2.2 Higher-Order Features Link Syllables into "Streams" -- 2.2.3 Open Questions -- 2.3 Focusing Attention: Selecting What to Process -- 2.3.1 Top-Down Control Guides Selection -- 2.3.2 Bottom-up Salience Influences Attention -- 2.3.3 Extracting Meaning from Imperfect Objects -- 2.4 Perceptual Consequences of Object-Based Auditory Selective Attention -- 2.4.1 Failure to Divide Attention -- 2.4.2 Obligatory Interactions Between Formation and Selection -- 2.4.3 Costs of Switching Attention -- 2.5 Neural Mechanisms Supporting Object Formation -- 2.6 Neural Mechanisms Supporting Object Selection -- 2.6.1 Visual Cognitive Networks Controlling Attention -- 2.6.2 Auditory Spatial Attention Engages Visual Orienting and Reorienting Networks -- 2.6.3 Nonspatial Auditory Attention Differentially Engages Auditory-Specific Networks -- 2.6.4 Both Sensory Modality and Task Demands Affect Network Activity -- 2.6.5 Entrainment of Neural Responses to Attended Speech -- 2.6.6 Other Neural Signatures of Focused Auditory Attention -- 2.7 Summary Comments -- References -- 3 Energetic Masking and Masking Release -- Abstract -- 3.1 Introduction.
3.2 Segregation by Fundamental Frequency -- 3.2.1 The Effect of an F0 Difference -- 3.2.2 Selecting Harmonic Components of a Common F0 -- 3.2.3 Temporal Analysis -- 3.2.4 Effects of Peripheral Nonlinearity -- 3.2.5 Cancellation Mechanisms -- 3.2.6 Level of Processing -- 3.2.7 Conclusions -- 3.3 Masking and Masking Release by Envelope Fluctuations -- 3.3.1 Listening in the Dips -- 3.3.2 Effects of Peripheral Nonlinearity -- 3.3.3 Modulation Masking -- 3.3.4 Intrinsic Modulation in Noises -- 3.3.5 Models Based on Modulation Filter Banks -- 3.3.6 Dip Listening in the Hearing Impaired -- 3.3.7 Conclusions -- 3.4 Spatial Release from Masking -- 3.4.1 Better-Ear Listening -- 3.4.2 Binaural Unmasking -- 3.4.3 The Problem of "Sluggishness" -- 3.4.4 Models of SRM -- 3.4.5 Conclusions -- 3.5 Other Mechanisms -- 3.5.1 Effect of Frequency Modulation on Prominence -- 3.5.2 Onset-Time Differences and the Potential Role of Adaptation -- 3.6 Summary -- References -- 4 Informational Masking in Speech Recognition -- Abstract -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 The History of Study of the Special Case of SOS Masking -- 4.3 Determining Energetic and Informational Masking in SOS Masking -- 4.3.1 Uncertainty -- 4.3.2 Controlling/Estimating Energetic Masking -- 4.3.3 Linguistic Variables -- 4.3.3.1 Time Reversal -- 4.3.3.2 Familiar Versus Unfamiliar Languages as Maskers -- 4.3.3.3 Syntactic and Semantic Content: Predictability and Obligatory Processing -- 4.4 Models of Binaural Analysis Applied to SOS Masking -- 4.5 Summary -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 5 Modeling the Cocktail Party Problem -- Abstract -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Defining the Problem in the Cocktail Party Problem -- 5.3 Principles of Modeling the Cocktail Party Problem -- 5.3.1 Algorithmic Strategies -- 5.3.1.1 The Population-Separation Theory -- 5.3.1.2 The Temporal Coherence Theory.
5.3.1.3 The Inference Theory -- 5.3.1.4 Spatial Models -- 5.3.2 Neural Infrastructure -- 5.4 Bottom-up Models of the Cocktail Party Problem -- 5.5 Top-Down Processes and the Cocktail Party Problem -- 5.6 Summary -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 6 Spatial Stream Segregation -- Abstract -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 Psychophysics of Spatial Stream Segregation -- 6.2.1 Weak Disruption of Stream Integration by Spatial Cues -- 6.2.2 Robust Stream Segregation by Spatial Cues -- 6.2.3 Spatial Acuity of Stream Segregation -- 6.2.4 Acoustic Cues for Spatial Stream Segregation -- 6.3 A Bottom-Up Substrate for Spatial Stream Segregation -- 6.3.1 Spatial Stream Segregation in Primary Auditory Cortex -- 6.3.2 Spatial Rhythmic Masking Release by Cortical Neurons -- 6.3.3 A Mechanism for Bottom-Up Spatial Stream Segregation -- 6.4 "Common" Versus "Dedicated" Spatial Representations for Localization and Spatial Stream Segregation -- 6.5 Selection of Objects of Attention -- 6.5.1 Task-Dependent Modulation of Stimulus Specificity in Behaving Animals -- 6.5.2 Object Selection in Human Neurophysiology -- 6.6 Summary, Synthesis, and Future Directions -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 7 Human Auditory Neuroscience and the Cocktail Party Problem -- Abstract -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.1.1 Common Experimental Methodologies -- 7.1.2 Chapter Topics -- 7.2 Neural Basis of Spatial Hearing in Humans -- 7.3 Neural Basis of Auditory Stream Segregation in Humans: Simple Sounds -- 7.3.1 Studies Using Limited Attentional Manipulation -- 7.3.1.1 Simple Tone Patterns -- 7.3.1.2 Tones and Maskers -- 7.3.2 Studies Using Explicit Attentional Manipulation -- 7.3.2.1 Tones and Maskers -- 7.3.2.2 Competing Simple Patterns -- 7.3.2.3 Suppressing Attention -- 7.4 Neural Basis of Auditory Stream Segregation in Humans: Speech -- 7.4.1 Studies Using Speech in Stationary Noise.
7.4.2 Studies Using Competing Speech Streams -- 7.4.3 Neuroanatomy of Speech-in-Noise Processing -- 7.5 Other Aspects of the Human Auditory Neuroscience of Cocktail Party Processing -- 7.5.1 Temporal Coherence -- 7.5.2 Bottom-up Versus Top-Down Attention -- 7.6 Summary -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 8 Infants and Children at the Cocktail Party -- Abstract -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Development of Auditory Coding -- 8.2.1 Spectral Resolution and Energetic Masking -- 8.2.2 Fundamental Frequency -- 8.2.3 Temporal Resolution -- 8.2.4 Spatial Hearing -- 8.2.5 Auditory-Visual Correspondence -- 8.3 Development of Auditory Scene Analysis -- 8.3.1 Listening to Speech in Speech -- 8.3.2 Cues Used in Auditory Scene Analysis -- 8.3.2.1 Frequency Separation -- 8.3.2.2 Timbre -- 8.3.2.3 Periodicity -- 8.3.2.4 Envelope Cues -- 8.3.2.5 Spatial Cues -- Masking Level Difference -- Contralateral Masking -- Spatial Release from Masking -- Summary -- 8.3.2.6 Visual Cues -- 8.3.3 Role of Selective Attention -- 8.4 Summary, Conclusions, and Future Directions -- References -- 9 Older Adults at the Cocktail Party -- Abstract -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Auditory Aging -- 9.2.1 Periphery -- 9.2.2 Speech Understanding -- 9.2.3 Psychoacoustics of Temporal Processing and Behavioral Measures of Speech Processing -- 9.2.3.1 Gap and Duration Detection -- 9.2.3.2 Temporal Fluctuations in the Amplitude Envelope -- 9.2.3.3 Synchrony or Periodicity Coding -- 9.2.3.4 Binaural Processing -- 9.3 Electrophysiological Measures of Auditory and Cognitive Aging -- 9.3.1 Brainstem -- 9.3.2 Cortex -- 9.3.3 Reconciling Behavioral and Electrophysiological Findings Regarding Age-Related Changes -- 9.4 Age-Related Differences in Speech Understanding Depending on Masker Type -- 9.4.1 Steady-State Maskers -- 9.4.2 Complex and Fluctuating Nonspeech Maskers -- 9.4.3 Speech Maskers.
9.5 Behavioral Measures of Age-Related Differences in the Perceptual Organization of Foreground Versus Background Sounds -- 9.5.1 Spatial Separation and Release from Masking -- 9.5.1.1 Real Spatial Separation -- 9.5.1.2 Simulated Spatial Separation -- 9.5.2 Speed of Buildup of Stream Segregation -- 9.5.3 Auditory Spatial Attention -- 9.5.4 Discourse-Beyond Words and Sentences -- 9.5.4.1 Adjusting SNR to Study Comprehension of Monologues -- 9.5.4.2 Adjusting Spatial Separation in Dialogues and Trialogues -- 9.5.5 Memory -- 9.6 Cognitive Aging and Sensory-Cognitive Interactions -- 9.6.1 Cognitive Aging -- 9.6.2 Sensory-Cognitive Interactions -- 9.6.2.1 Cognitively Healthy Older Adults -- 9.6.2.2 Older Adults with Cognitive Loss -- 9.6.3 Brain Plasticity and Compensation -- 9.6.3.1 Vocabulary -- 9.6.3.2 Sentences and Discourse -- 9.7 Summary -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 10 Hearing with Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids in Complex Auditory Scenes -- Abstract -- 10.1 Introduction -- 10.2 Adults at the Cocktail Party -- 10.2.1 Factors that Limit Performance -- 10.2.2 Physiological Factors that Limit Performance in Hearing Impaired Individuals -- 10.2.3 Devices -- 10.2.3.1 Cochlear Implants -- 10.2.3.2 Hearing Aids -- 10.3 Adults with Cochlear Implants -- 10.3.1 Availability of Spatial Cues -- 10.3.2 Binaural Capabilities of Adult BICI Users -- 10.3.3 Sound Localization -- 10.3.4 Binaural Masking Level Differences -- 10.3.5 SRM in BICI Users -- 10.3.6 Simulating Aspects of CI Processing for Testing in Normal-Hearing Listeners -- 10.4 Adults with HAs -- 10.4.1 Unilateral Versus Bilateral Fitting -- 10.4.2 Bilateral Benefits -- 10.4.3 Technological Advances -- 10.5 Introduction to Pediatric Studies -- 10.5.1 Studies in Children with BICIs -- 10.5.2 Sequential Versus Simultaneous BICIs -- 10.5.3 Children with HAs.
10.5.4 Variability and Effects of Executive Function.
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The Acoustical Society of America -- Series Preface -- Preface 1992 -- Volume Preface -- Contents -- Contributors -- 1 Ear and Brain Mechanisms for Parsing the Auditory Scene -- Abstract -- 1.1 Introduction -- 1.2 Some Central Concepts -- 1.3 Overview of the Volume -- 1.4 Ears and Brains -- References -- 2 Auditory Object Formation and Selection -- Abstract -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.1.1 The Cocktail Party: Confusing Mixtures and Limited Processing Capacity -- 2.1.2 Object-Based Attention -- 2.1.3 Heterarchical Rather Than Hierarchical Processing -- 2.1.4 A Historical Note -- 2.2 Parsing the Acoustic Scene: Auditory Object Formation -- 2.2.1 Local Spectrotemporal Cues Support "Syllable-Level" Object Formation -- 2.2.2 Higher-Order Features Link Syllables into "Streams" -- 2.2.3 Open Questions -- 2.3 Focusing Attention: Selecting What to Process -- 2.3.1 Top-Down Control Guides Selection -- 2.3.2 Bottom-up Salience Influences Attention -- 2.3.3 Extracting Meaning from Imperfect Objects -- 2.4 Perceptual Consequences of Object-Based Auditory Selective Attention -- 2.4.1 Failure to Divide Attention -- 2.4.2 Obligatory Interactions Between Formation and Selection -- 2.4.3 Costs of Switching Attention -- 2.5 Neural Mechanisms Supporting Object Formation -- 2.6 Neural Mechanisms Supporting Object Selection -- 2.6.1 Visual Cognitive Networks Controlling Attention -- 2.6.2 Auditory Spatial Attention Engages Visual Orienting and Reorienting Networks -- 2.6.3 Nonspatial Auditory Attention Differentially Engages Auditory-Specific Networks -- 2.6.4 Both Sensory Modality and Task Demands Affect Network Activity -- 2.6.5 Entrainment of Neural Responses to Attended Speech -- 2.6.6 Other Neural Signatures of Focused Auditory Attention -- 2.7 Summary Comments -- References -- 3 Energetic Masking and Masking Release -- Abstract -- 3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Segregation by Fundamental Frequency -- 3.2.1 The Effect of an F0 Difference -- 3.2.2 Selecting Harmonic Components of a Common F0 -- 3.2.3 Temporal Analysis -- 3.2.4 Effects of Peripheral Nonlinearity -- 3.2.5 Cancellation Mechanisms -- 3.2.6 Level of Processing -- 3.2.7 Conclusions -- 3.3 Masking and Masking Release by Envelope Fluctuations -- 3.3.1 Listening in the Dips -- 3.3.2 Effects of Peripheral Nonlinearity -- 3.3.3 Modulation Masking -- 3.3.4 Intrinsic Modulation in Noises -- 3.3.5 Models Based on Modulation Filter Banks -- 3.3.6 Dip Listening in the Hearing Impaired -- 3.3.7 Conclusions -- 3.4 Spatial Release from Masking -- 3.4.1 Better-Ear Listening -- 3.4.2 Binaural Unmasking -- 3.4.3 The Problem of "Sluggishness" -- 3.4.4 Models of SRM -- 3.4.5 Conclusions -- 3.5 Other Mechanisms -- 3.5.1 Effect of Frequency Modulation on Prominence -- 3.5.2 Onset-Time Differences and the Potential Role of Adaptation -- 3.6 Summary -- References -- 4 Informational Masking in Speech Recognition -- Abstract -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 The History of Study of the Special Case of SOS Masking -- 4.3 Determining Energetic and Informational Masking in SOS Masking -- 4.3.1 Uncertainty -- 4.3.2 Controlling/Estimating Energetic Masking -- 4.3.3 Linguistic Variables -- 4.3.3.1 Time Reversal -- 4.3.3.2 Familiar Versus Unfamiliar Languages as Maskers -- 4.3.3.3 Syntactic and Semantic Content: Predictability and Obligatory Processing -- 4.4 Models of Binaural Analysis Applied to SOS Masking -- 4.5 Summary -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 5 Modeling the Cocktail Party Problem -- Abstract -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Defining the Problem in the Cocktail Party Problem -- 5.3 Principles of Modeling the Cocktail Party Problem -- 5.3.1 Algorithmic Strategies -- 5.3.1.1 The Population-Separation Theory -- 5.3.1.2 The Temporal Coherence Theory.

5.3.1.3 The Inference Theory -- 5.3.1.4 Spatial Models -- 5.3.2 Neural Infrastructure -- 5.4 Bottom-up Models of the Cocktail Party Problem -- 5.5 Top-Down Processes and the Cocktail Party Problem -- 5.6 Summary -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 6 Spatial Stream Segregation -- Abstract -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 Psychophysics of Spatial Stream Segregation -- 6.2.1 Weak Disruption of Stream Integration by Spatial Cues -- 6.2.2 Robust Stream Segregation by Spatial Cues -- 6.2.3 Spatial Acuity of Stream Segregation -- 6.2.4 Acoustic Cues for Spatial Stream Segregation -- 6.3 A Bottom-Up Substrate for Spatial Stream Segregation -- 6.3.1 Spatial Stream Segregation in Primary Auditory Cortex -- 6.3.2 Spatial Rhythmic Masking Release by Cortical Neurons -- 6.3.3 A Mechanism for Bottom-Up Spatial Stream Segregation -- 6.4 "Common" Versus "Dedicated" Spatial Representations for Localization and Spatial Stream Segregation -- 6.5 Selection of Objects of Attention -- 6.5.1 Task-Dependent Modulation of Stimulus Specificity in Behaving Animals -- 6.5.2 Object Selection in Human Neurophysiology -- 6.6 Summary, Synthesis, and Future Directions -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 7 Human Auditory Neuroscience and the Cocktail Party Problem -- Abstract -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.1.1 Common Experimental Methodologies -- 7.1.2 Chapter Topics -- 7.2 Neural Basis of Spatial Hearing in Humans -- 7.3 Neural Basis of Auditory Stream Segregation in Humans: Simple Sounds -- 7.3.1 Studies Using Limited Attentional Manipulation -- 7.3.1.1 Simple Tone Patterns -- 7.3.1.2 Tones and Maskers -- 7.3.2 Studies Using Explicit Attentional Manipulation -- 7.3.2.1 Tones and Maskers -- 7.3.2.2 Competing Simple Patterns -- 7.3.2.3 Suppressing Attention -- 7.4 Neural Basis of Auditory Stream Segregation in Humans: Speech -- 7.4.1 Studies Using Speech in Stationary Noise.

7.4.2 Studies Using Competing Speech Streams -- 7.4.3 Neuroanatomy of Speech-in-Noise Processing -- 7.5 Other Aspects of the Human Auditory Neuroscience of Cocktail Party Processing -- 7.5.1 Temporal Coherence -- 7.5.2 Bottom-up Versus Top-Down Attention -- 7.6 Summary -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 8 Infants and Children at the Cocktail Party -- Abstract -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Development of Auditory Coding -- 8.2.1 Spectral Resolution and Energetic Masking -- 8.2.2 Fundamental Frequency -- 8.2.3 Temporal Resolution -- 8.2.4 Spatial Hearing -- 8.2.5 Auditory-Visual Correspondence -- 8.3 Development of Auditory Scene Analysis -- 8.3.1 Listening to Speech in Speech -- 8.3.2 Cues Used in Auditory Scene Analysis -- 8.3.2.1 Frequency Separation -- 8.3.2.2 Timbre -- 8.3.2.3 Periodicity -- 8.3.2.4 Envelope Cues -- 8.3.2.5 Spatial Cues -- Masking Level Difference -- Contralateral Masking -- Spatial Release from Masking -- Summary -- 8.3.2.6 Visual Cues -- 8.3.3 Role of Selective Attention -- 8.4 Summary, Conclusions, and Future Directions -- References -- 9 Older Adults at the Cocktail Party -- Abstract -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Auditory Aging -- 9.2.1 Periphery -- 9.2.2 Speech Understanding -- 9.2.3 Psychoacoustics of Temporal Processing and Behavioral Measures of Speech Processing -- 9.2.3.1 Gap and Duration Detection -- 9.2.3.2 Temporal Fluctuations in the Amplitude Envelope -- 9.2.3.3 Synchrony or Periodicity Coding -- 9.2.3.4 Binaural Processing -- 9.3 Electrophysiological Measures of Auditory and Cognitive Aging -- 9.3.1 Brainstem -- 9.3.2 Cortex -- 9.3.3 Reconciling Behavioral and Electrophysiological Findings Regarding Age-Related Changes -- 9.4 Age-Related Differences in Speech Understanding Depending on Masker Type -- 9.4.1 Steady-State Maskers -- 9.4.2 Complex and Fluctuating Nonspeech Maskers -- 9.4.3 Speech Maskers.

9.5 Behavioral Measures of Age-Related Differences in the Perceptual Organization of Foreground Versus Background Sounds -- 9.5.1 Spatial Separation and Release from Masking -- 9.5.1.1 Real Spatial Separation -- 9.5.1.2 Simulated Spatial Separation -- 9.5.2 Speed of Buildup of Stream Segregation -- 9.5.3 Auditory Spatial Attention -- 9.5.4 Discourse-Beyond Words and Sentences -- 9.5.4.1 Adjusting SNR to Study Comprehension of Monologues -- 9.5.4.2 Adjusting Spatial Separation in Dialogues and Trialogues -- 9.5.5 Memory -- 9.6 Cognitive Aging and Sensory-Cognitive Interactions -- 9.6.1 Cognitive Aging -- 9.6.2 Sensory-Cognitive Interactions -- 9.6.2.1 Cognitively Healthy Older Adults -- 9.6.2.2 Older Adults with Cognitive Loss -- 9.6.3 Brain Plasticity and Compensation -- 9.6.3.1 Vocabulary -- 9.6.3.2 Sentences and Discourse -- 9.7 Summary -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 10 Hearing with Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids in Complex Auditory Scenes -- Abstract -- 10.1 Introduction -- 10.2 Adults at the Cocktail Party -- 10.2.1 Factors that Limit Performance -- 10.2.2 Physiological Factors that Limit Performance in Hearing Impaired Individuals -- 10.2.3 Devices -- 10.2.3.1 Cochlear Implants -- 10.2.3.2 Hearing Aids -- 10.3 Adults with Cochlear Implants -- 10.3.1 Availability of Spatial Cues -- 10.3.2 Binaural Capabilities of Adult BICI Users -- 10.3.3 Sound Localization -- 10.3.4 Binaural Masking Level Differences -- 10.3.5 SRM in BICI Users -- 10.3.6 Simulating Aspects of CI Processing for Testing in Normal-Hearing Listeners -- 10.4 Adults with HAs -- 10.4.1 Unilateral Versus Bilateral Fitting -- 10.4.2 Bilateral Benefits -- 10.4.3 Technological Advances -- 10.5 Introduction to Pediatric Studies -- 10.5.1 Studies in Children with BICIs -- 10.5.2 Sequential Versus Simultaneous BICIs -- 10.5.3 Children with HAs.

10.5.4 Variability and Effects of Executive Function.

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