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Engaging Bioethics : An Introduction with Case Studies.

By: Seay, Gary.
Contributor(s): Nuccetelli, Susana.
Material type: TextTextSeries: eBooks on Demand.Publisher: London : Routledge, 2017Copyright date: ©2017Description: 1 online resource (438 pages).Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781135041106.Subject(s): Medical ethicsAdditional physical formats: Print version:: Engaging Bioethics : An Introduction with Case StudiesDDC classification: 174.2 Online resources: Click here to view this ebook.
Contents:
Cover -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- About the Authors -- Preface -- Abbreviations -- Part I Bioethics and Moral Theory -- Chapter 1 The Study of Morality -- 1.1 Rev. Jacobson's Refusal of Vaccination -- 1.2 The Evolution of Bioethics from Professional Ethics -- The Hippocratic Tradition -- Medieval Developments -- Later Developments -- Contemporary Bioethics -- 1.3 Bioethics in the Context of Ethics -- Descriptive and Normative Senses of 'Morality' -- The Philosophical Study of Morality -- Normative Ethics -- 1.4 Chapter Summary -- 1.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 2 Philosophical Accounts of Morality -- 2.1 Baby Theresa and the Problem of Anencephalic Organ Sources -- 2.2 Authority Is the Source of Normativity -- Culture as Moral Authority -- God as Moral Authority -- 2.3 Authority Is Not the Source of Normativity -- Natural Law Theory -- Consequentialism -- Kantian Ethics -- Virtue Ethics -- Care Ethics -- Rossian Ethics -- Particularism -- 2.4 Chapter Summary -- 2.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Part II Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Bioethics -- Chapter 3 Principle-Oriented and Case-Oriented Bioethics -- 3.1 Dax's Case -- 3.2 Principlism -- Autonomy -- Nonmaleficence -- Beneficence and Paternalism -- 3.3 Casuistry -- How Casuistry Works -- The Top-Down/Bottom-Up Dichotomy -- 3.4 Chapter Summary -- 3.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 4 Managing Patient Information -- 4.1 The Tarasoff Decision -- 4.2 Medical Confidentiality -- Philosophical Grounds -- Absolutism, Universalism, and Skepticism -- 4.3 Must Health Care Professionals Always Tell the Truth? -- Disclosure and Deception Defined.
Evolving Attitudes toward Disclosure -- Moral Grounds for Disclosure -- The Problem of Culture -- 4.4 Genetic Information -- Genetic Knowledge -- Genetic Pseudo-Knowledge -- Nondirective Genetic Counseling -- Is There a Right to Genetic Ignorance? -- 4.5 Chapter Summary -- 4.6 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 5 Consent with Competence and Without -- 5.1 Natanson v Kline: The Limits of Paternalistic Beneficence -- 5.2 The Elements of Informed Consent -- Consent -- Information -- Understanding and Voluntariness -- Competence -- 5.3 Exceptions and Doubts -- Exceptions to Informed Consent -- Skepticism about Informed Consent -- 5.4 Consent in the Absence of Competence -- Decisionmaking for Previously Competent Adults -- Decisionmaking for Never Competent Adults -- Decisionmaking for Children -- Decisionmaking in Ashley X -- 5.5 Chapter Summary -- 5.6 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Part III Moral Issues at the End of Life -- Chapter 6 Death and Dying -- 6.1 Was Jahi McMath Dead? -- 6.2 Accounting for Human Death -- Western Thought on Human Death -- The Standard Account of Death -- 6.3 Cardiopulmonary Death -- The Cardiopulmonary Criterion -- Donation after Cardiac Death -- 6.4 Brain Death -- Disorders of Consciousness versus Brain Death -- Whole-Brain versus Brainstem Death -- Higher-Brain Death -- 6.5 Chapter Summary -- 6.6 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 7 When Life Supports Are Futile or Refused -- 7.1 Was Continued Life in Tony Bland's Best Interests? -- 7.2 Forgoing Life Supports -- Karen Quinlan -- Nancy Cruzan -- Nancy B -- 7.3 Medical Futility at the End of Life -- What Is Medical Futility? -- Types of Futility.
The Moral Grounds of Medical Futility -- Disagreements about Futility Judgments -- 7.4 Objections and Alternatives to Medical Futility -- The Sanctity-of-Life Doctrine -- Ordinary versus Extraordinary Means -- 7.5 Chapter Summary -- 7.6 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 8 Medically Assisted Death -- 8.1 Dr. Cox's Use of Euthanasia -- 8.2 Medical Euthanasia -- Euthanasia and Other End-of-Life Measures -- Types of Euthanasia -- Passive versus Active Euthanasia -- 8.3 Physician-Assisted Suicide -- Physician-Assisted Suicide and Voluntary Active Euthanasia -- Oregon's Death with Dignity Act -- Suicide Tourism -- 8.4 Physician-Assisted Dying: For and Against -- Physician-Assisted Dying Is Morally Permissible -- Physician-Assisted Dying Is Morally Forbidden -- The Dutch Experience -- 8.5 Chapter Summary -- 8.6 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 9 End-of-Life Measures for Severely Compromised Newborns -- 9.1 Baby Jane Doe: Parental Choice and State Duties -- 9.2 Decisionmaking Standards for Compromised Newborns -- The Baby Doe Regulations -- From the Baby Doe Regulations to HCA v Miller -- 9.3 Prematurity and Low Birthweight -- Prematurity -- Low Birthweight -- The Ethical Issues -- 9.4 Critical Care for Severely Compromised Newborns -- For Providing Critical Care -- Against Providing Critical Care -- Neonatal Euthanasia -- 9.5 Chapter Summary -- 9.6 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Part IV Moral Issues at the Beginning of Life -- Chapter 10 Personhood in the Abortion Debate -- 10.1 Marlise Muñoz: Pregnant but Dead -- 10.2 Personhood -- The Ambiguity of 'Person' -- Criteria of Personhood -- Over-Inclusiveness, Under-Inclusiveness, and Speciesism.
10.3 The Abortion Debate -- Does the Debate Matter? -- How to Move Ahead -- Personhood in the Abortion Debate -- 10.4 Chapter Summary -- 10.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 11 Abortion in the Typical Case -- 11.1 Roe v Wade: A Compromise on Abortion -- 11.2 Abortion: Some Facts -- What Is Abortion? -- The Practice of Abortion -- 11.3 Against the Moral Permissibility of Abortion -- The Sanctity of Life -- Developmental Continuity -- Kind Essentialism -- Potentiality -- The Loss of a Valuable Future -- 11.4 For the Moral Permissibility of Abortion -- Skepticism about Fetal Personhood -- The Good Samaritan Argument -- 11.5 Intermediate Views -- Early Brain Activity -- Organized Cortical Activity -- Fetal Interests -- 11.6 Chapter Summary -- 11.7 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 12 Abortion in the Hard Cases -- 12.1 Sherri Finkbine's Choices -- 12.2 Two Hard Cases for Abortion Critics -- Abortion to Save the Mother's Life or Health -- Abortion for Fetal Defects -- 12.3 Two Hard Cases for Abortion Defenders -- Abortion for Sex Selection -- Late-Term Abortion -- 12.4 Chapter Summary -- 12.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 13 Conflicts of Rights at Life's Beginning -- 13.1 Deborah Zimmerman: Alcohol Abuse During Pregnancy -- 13.2 Maternal-Fetal Conflicts -- Some Facts about Fetal Harm -- Maternal Obligations and Rights -- A Dilemma for Public Policy -- 13.3 Maternal Rights and the State's Obligations -- Abortion Policy in the UK -- Abortion Policy in the US -- Banning 'Partial-Birth Abortion' -- Restricting Public Funding for Abortion -- 13.4 Maternal Rights and Conscientious Objectors -- Women/Health Care Providers Conflicts.
The Duties of Conscientious Objectors -- The Referral Problem -- 13.5 Chapter Summary -- 13.6 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Part V The Biotechnological Revolution -- Chapter 14 New Reproductive Technologies -- 14.1 Nadya Suleman's Octuplets -- 14.2 The Simple Cases -- The Simple Case of In-Vitro Fertilization -- Fertility Therapy -- The Problem of Multiples -- 14.3 The Complex Cases -- Egg Donation, Gestational Surrogacy, and Postmenopausal Motherhood -- Some Facts about Egg Donors and Gestational Carriers -- Moral Controversies -- 14.4 Chapter Summary -- 14.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 15 Human Genetic Engineering -- 15.1 Designing Deaf Baby -- 15.2 Some Moral Controversies in Reprogenetics -- Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis -- Human Reproductive Cloning -- Early Eugenics -- 15.3 Human Genetic Enhancement -- The Posthuman Scenario -- Defining 'Enhancement' -- Designer Babies -- 15.4 Chapter Summary -- 15.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Part VI Medicine and Society -- Chapter 16 Biomedical Research on Animals -- 16.1 Dr. Gennarelli's Head-Injury Study -- 16.2 The Animal Experimentation Debate -- Abolitionism and Its Rivals -- The Benefits Argument -- Doubts about the Benefits of Animal Research -- 16.3 Animal Moral Standing -- For the Moral Standing of Animals -- Speciesism versus Humanism -- Skepticism about Animals' Moral Standing -- Animal Law -- 16.4 Chapter Summary -- 16.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 17 Biomedical Research on Humans -- 17.1 The Tuskegee Untreated-Syphilis Study -- 17.2 Ethical Issues in Research on Human Subjects.
Early Ethical Guidelines.
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Cover -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- About the Authors -- Preface -- Abbreviations -- Part I Bioethics and Moral Theory -- Chapter 1 The Study of Morality -- 1.1 Rev. Jacobson's Refusal of Vaccination -- 1.2 The Evolution of Bioethics from Professional Ethics -- The Hippocratic Tradition -- Medieval Developments -- Later Developments -- Contemporary Bioethics -- 1.3 Bioethics in the Context of Ethics -- Descriptive and Normative Senses of 'Morality' -- The Philosophical Study of Morality -- Normative Ethics -- 1.4 Chapter Summary -- 1.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 2 Philosophical Accounts of Morality -- 2.1 Baby Theresa and the Problem of Anencephalic Organ Sources -- 2.2 Authority Is the Source of Normativity -- Culture as Moral Authority -- God as Moral Authority -- 2.3 Authority Is Not the Source of Normativity -- Natural Law Theory -- Consequentialism -- Kantian Ethics -- Virtue Ethics -- Care Ethics -- Rossian Ethics -- Particularism -- 2.4 Chapter Summary -- 2.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Part II Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Bioethics -- Chapter 3 Principle-Oriented and Case-Oriented Bioethics -- 3.1 Dax's Case -- 3.2 Principlism -- Autonomy -- Nonmaleficence -- Beneficence and Paternalism -- 3.3 Casuistry -- How Casuistry Works -- The Top-Down/Bottom-Up Dichotomy -- 3.4 Chapter Summary -- 3.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 4 Managing Patient Information -- 4.1 The Tarasoff Decision -- 4.2 Medical Confidentiality -- Philosophical Grounds -- Absolutism, Universalism, and Skepticism -- 4.3 Must Health Care Professionals Always Tell the Truth? -- Disclosure and Deception Defined.

Evolving Attitudes toward Disclosure -- Moral Grounds for Disclosure -- The Problem of Culture -- 4.4 Genetic Information -- Genetic Knowledge -- Genetic Pseudo-Knowledge -- Nondirective Genetic Counseling -- Is There a Right to Genetic Ignorance? -- 4.5 Chapter Summary -- 4.6 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 5 Consent with Competence and Without -- 5.1 Natanson v Kline: The Limits of Paternalistic Beneficence -- 5.2 The Elements of Informed Consent -- Consent -- Information -- Understanding and Voluntariness -- Competence -- 5.3 Exceptions and Doubts -- Exceptions to Informed Consent -- Skepticism about Informed Consent -- 5.4 Consent in the Absence of Competence -- Decisionmaking for Previously Competent Adults -- Decisionmaking for Never Competent Adults -- Decisionmaking for Children -- Decisionmaking in Ashley X -- 5.5 Chapter Summary -- 5.6 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Part III Moral Issues at the End of Life -- Chapter 6 Death and Dying -- 6.1 Was Jahi McMath Dead? -- 6.2 Accounting for Human Death -- Western Thought on Human Death -- The Standard Account of Death -- 6.3 Cardiopulmonary Death -- The Cardiopulmonary Criterion -- Donation after Cardiac Death -- 6.4 Brain Death -- Disorders of Consciousness versus Brain Death -- Whole-Brain versus Brainstem Death -- Higher-Brain Death -- 6.5 Chapter Summary -- 6.6 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 7 When Life Supports Are Futile or Refused -- 7.1 Was Continued Life in Tony Bland's Best Interests? -- 7.2 Forgoing Life Supports -- Karen Quinlan -- Nancy Cruzan -- Nancy B -- 7.3 Medical Futility at the End of Life -- What Is Medical Futility? -- Types of Futility.

The Moral Grounds of Medical Futility -- Disagreements about Futility Judgments -- 7.4 Objections and Alternatives to Medical Futility -- The Sanctity-of-Life Doctrine -- Ordinary versus Extraordinary Means -- 7.5 Chapter Summary -- 7.6 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 8 Medically Assisted Death -- 8.1 Dr. Cox's Use of Euthanasia -- 8.2 Medical Euthanasia -- Euthanasia and Other End-of-Life Measures -- Types of Euthanasia -- Passive versus Active Euthanasia -- 8.3 Physician-Assisted Suicide -- Physician-Assisted Suicide and Voluntary Active Euthanasia -- Oregon's Death with Dignity Act -- Suicide Tourism -- 8.4 Physician-Assisted Dying: For and Against -- Physician-Assisted Dying Is Morally Permissible -- Physician-Assisted Dying Is Morally Forbidden -- The Dutch Experience -- 8.5 Chapter Summary -- 8.6 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 9 End-of-Life Measures for Severely Compromised Newborns -- 9.1 Baby Jane Doe: Parental Choice and State Duties -- 9.2 Decisionmaking Standards for Compromised Newborns -- The Baby Doe Regulations -- From the Baby Doe Regulations to HCA v Miller -- 9.3 Prematurity and Low Birthweight -- Prematurity -- Low Birthweight -- The Ethical Issues -- 9.4 Critical Care for Severely Compromised Newborns -- For Providing Critical Care -- Against Providing Critical Care -- Neonatal Euthanasia -- 9.5 Chapter Summary -- 9.6 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Part IV Moral Issues at the Beginning of Life -- Chapter 10 Personhood in the Abortion Debate -- 10.1 Marlise Muñoz: Pregnant but Dead -- 10.2 Personhood -- The Ambiguity of 'Person' -- Criteria of Personhood -- Over-Inclusiveness, Under-Inclusiveness, and Speciesism.

10.3 The Abortion Debate -- Does the Debate Matter? -- How to Move Ahead -- Personhood in the Abortion Debate -- 10.4 Chapter Summary -- 10.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 11 Abortion in the Typical Case -- 11.1 Roe v Wade: A Compromise on Abortion -- 11.2 Abortion: Some Facts -- What Is Abortion? -- The Practice of Abortion -- 11.3 Against the Moral Permissibility of Abortion -- The Sanctity of Life -- Developmental Continuity -- Kind Essentialism -- Potentiality -- The Loss of a Valuable Future -- 11.4 For the Moral Permissibility of Abortion -- Skepticism about Fetal Personhood -- The Good Samaritan Argument -- 11.5 Intermediate Views -- Early Brain Activity -- Organized Cortical Activity -- Fetal Interests -- 11.6 Chapter Summary -- 11.7 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 12 Abortion in the Hard Cases -- 12.1 Sherri Finkbine's Choices -- 12.2 Two Hard Cases for Abortion Critics -- Abortion to Save the Mother's Life or Health -- Abortion for Fetal Defects -- 12.3 Two Hard Cases for Abortion Defenders -- Abortion for Sex Selection -- Late-Term Abortion -- 12.4 Chapter Summary -- 12.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 13 Conflicts of Rights at Life's Beginning -- 13.1 Deborah Zimmerman: Alcohol Abuse During Pregnancy -- 13.2 Maternal-Fetal Conflicts -- Some Facts about Fetal Harm -- Maternal Obligations and Rights -- A Dilemma for Public Policy -- 13.3 Maternal Rights and the State's Obligations -- Abortion Policy in the UK -- Abortion Policy in the US -- Banning 'Partial-Birth Abortion' -- Restricting Public Funding for Abortion -- 13.4 Maternal Rights and Conscientious Objectors -- Women/Health Care Providers Conflicts.

The Duties of Conscientious Objectors -- The Referral Problem -- 13.5 Chapter Summary -- 13.6 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Part V The Biotechnological Revolution -- Chapter 14 New Reproductive Technologies -- 14.1 Nadya Suleman's Octuplets -- 14.2 The Simple Cases -- The Simple Case of In-Vitro Fertilization -- Fertility Therapy -- The Problem of Multiples -- 14.3 The Complex Cases -- Egg Donation, Gestational Surrogacy, and Postmenopausal Motherhood -- Some Facts about Egg Donors and Gestational Carriers -- Moral Controversies -- 14.4 Chapter Summary -- 14.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 15 Human Genetic Engineering -- 15.1 Designing Deaf Baby -- 15.2 Some Moral Controversies in Reprogenetics -- Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis -- Human Reproductive Cloning -- Early Eugenics -- 15.3 Human Genetic Enhancement -- The Posthuman Scenario -- Defining 'Enhancement' -- Designer Babies -- 15.4 Chapter Summary -- 15.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Part VI Medicine and Society -- Chapter 16 Biomedical Research on Animals -- 16.1 Dr. Gennarelli's Head-Injury Study -- 16.2 The Animal Experimentation Debate -- Abolitionism and Its Rivals -- The Benefits Argument -- Doubts about the Benefits of Animal Research -- 16.3 Animal Moral Standing -- For the Moral Standing of Animals -- Speciesism versus Humanism -- Skepticism about Animals' Moral Standing -- Animal Law -- 16.4 Chapter Summary -- 16.5 Study Aids -- Key Words -- Questions and Cases for Further Consideration -- Suggested Readings -- Chapter 17 Biomedical Research on Humans -- 17.1 The Tuskegee Untreated-Syphilis Study -- 17.2 Ethical Issues in Research on Human Subjects.

Early Ethical Guidelines.

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Author notes provided by Syndetics

<p>Gary Seay is professor of philosophy at Medgar Evers College of the City University of New York.</p> <p>Susana Nuccetelli is professor of philosophy at St. Cloud State University in Minnesota.</p>

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