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The Emperors New Mind : Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics.

By: Penrose, Roger.
Contributor(s): Gardner, Martin.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookSeries: eBooks on Demand.Publisher: Oxford : Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2014Copyright date: ©1999Description: 1 online resource (755 pages).Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9780191506406.Subject(s): Artificial intelligence | Computers | Physics -- Philosophy | Science -- Philosophy | Thought and thinkingGenre/Form: Electronic books.Additional physical formats: Print version:: The Emperors New Mind : Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of PhysicsDDC classification: 006.32 Online resources: Click here to view this ebook.
Contents:
Cover Page -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Note the Reader -- Acknowledgments -- Figure Acknowledgments -- Foreword -- Preface -- Contents -- Prologue -- 1 Can A Computer Have A Mind? -- Introduction -- The Turing test -- Artificial intelligence -- An AI approach to 'pleasure' and 'pain' -- Strong AI and Searle's Chinese room -- Hardware and software -- 2 Algorithms And Turing Machines -- Background to the algorithm concept -- Turing's concept -- Binary coding of numerical data -- The Church-Turing Thesis -- Numbers other than natural numbers -- The universal Turing machine -- The insolubility of Hilbert's problem -- How to outdo an algorithm -- Church's lambda calculus -- 3 Mathematics And Reality -- The land of Tor'Bled-Nam -- Real numbers -- How many real numbers are there? -- 'Reality' of real numbers -- Complex numbers -- Construction of the Mandelbrot set -- Platonic reality of mathematical concepts? -- 4 Truth, Proof, And Insight -- Hilbert's programme for mathematics -- Formal mathematical systems -- Gödel's theorem -- Mathematical insight -- Platonism or intuitionism? -- Gödel-type theorems from Turing's result -- Recursively enumerable sets -- Is the Mandelbrot set recursive? -- Some examples of non-recursive mathematics -- Is the Mandelbrot set like non-recursive mathematics? -- Complexity theory -- Complexity and computability in physical things -- 5 The Classical World -- The status of physical theory -- Euclidean geometry -- The dynamics of Galileo and Newton -- The mechanistic world of Newtonian dynamics -- Is life in the billiard-ball world computable? -- Hamiltonian mechanics -- Phase space -- Maxwell's electromagnetic theory -- Computability and the wave equation -- The Lorentz equation of motion -- runaway particles -- The special relativity of Einstein and Poincaré -- Einstein's general relativity.
Relativistic causality and determinism -- Computability in classical physics: where do we stand? -- Mass, matter, and reality -- 6 Quantum Magic And Quantum Mystery -- Do philosophers need quantum theory? -- Problems with classical theory -- The beginnings of quantum theory -- The two-slit experiment -- Probability amplitudes -- The quantum state of a particle -- The uncertainty principle -- The evolution procedures U and R -- Particles in two places at once? -- Hilbert space -- Measurements -- Spin and the Riemann sphere of states -- Objectivity and measurability of quantum states -- Copying a quantum state -- Photon spin -- Objects with large Spin -- Many-particle systems -- The 'paradox' of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen -- Experiments with photons: a problem for relativity? -- Schrödinger's equation -- Dirac's equation -- Quantum field theory -- Schrödinger's cat -- Various attitudes in existing quantum theory -- Where does all this leave us? -- 7 Cosmology And The Arrow Of Time -- The flow of time -- The inexorable increase of entropy -- What is entropy? -- The second law in action -- The origin of low entropy in the universe -- Cosmology and the big bang -- The primordial fireball -- Does the big bang explain the second law? -- Black holes -- The structure of space-time singularities -- How special was the big bang? -- 8 In Search Of Quantum Gravity -- Why quantum gravity? -- What lies behind the Weyl curvature hypothesis? -- Time-asymmetry in state-vector reduction -- Hawking's box: a link with the Weyl curvature hypothesis? -- When does the state-vector reduce? -- 9 Real Brains And Model Brains -- What are brains actually like? -- Where is the seat of consciousness? -- Split-brain experiments -- Blindsight -- Information processing in the visual cortex -- How do nerve signals work? -- Computer models -- Brain plasticity.
Parallel computers and the 'oneness' of consciousness -- Is there a role for quantum mechanics in brain activity? -- Quantum computers -- Beyond quantum theory? -- 10 Where Lies The Physics Of Mind? -- What are minds for? -- What does consciousness actually do? -- Natural selection of algorithms? -- The non-algorithmic nature of mathematical insight -- Inspiration, insight, and originality -- Non-verbality of thought -- Animal consciousness? -- Contact with Plato's world -- A view of physical reality -- Determinism and strong determinism -- The anthropic principle -- Tilings and quasicrystals -- Possible relevance to brain plasticity -- The time-delays of consciousness -- The strange role of time in conscious perception -- Conclusion: a child's view -- Epilogue -- References -- Index -- Footnotes.
Summary: For many decades, the proponents of `artificial intelligence' have maintained that computers will soon be able to do everything that a human can do. In his bestselling work of popular science, Sir Roger Penrose takes us on a fascinating roller-coaster ride through the basic principles of physics, cosmology, mathematics, and philosophy to show that human thinking can never be emulated by a machine.
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Cover Page -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Note the Reader -- Acknowledgments -- Figure Acknowledgments -- Foreword -- Preface -- Contents -- Prologue -- 1 Can A Computer Have A Mind? -- Introduction -- The Turing test -- Artificial intelligence -- An AI approach to 'pleasure' and 'pain' -- Strong AI and Searle's Chinese room -- Hardware and software -- 2 Algorithms And Turing Machines -- Background to the algorithm concept -- Turing's concept -- Binary coding of numerical data -- The Church-Turing Thesis -- Numbers other than natural numbers -- The universal Turing machine -- The insolubility of Hilbert's problem -- How to outdo an algorithm -- Church's lambda calculus -- 3 Mathematics And Reality -- The land of Tor'Bled-Nam -- Real numbers -- How many real numbers are there? -- 'Reality' of real numbers -- Complex numbers -- Construction of the Mandelbrot set -- Platonic reality of mathematical concepts? -- 4 Truth, Proof, And Insight -- Hilbert's programme for mathematics -- Formal mathematical systems -- Gödel's theorem -- Mathematical insight -- Platonism or intuitionism? -- Gödel-type theorems from Turing's result -- Recursively enumerable sets -- Is the Mandelbrot set recursive? -- Some examples of non-recursive mathematics -- Is the Mandelbrot set like non-recursive mathematics? -- Complexity theory -- Complexity and computability in physical things -- 5 The Classical World -- The status of physical theory -- Euclidean geometry -- The dynamics of Galileo and Newton -- The mechanistic world of Newtonian dynamics -- Is life in the billiard-ball world computable? -- Hamiltonian mechanics -- Phase space -- Maxwell's electromagnetic theory -- Computability and the wave equation -- The Lorentz equation of motion -- runaway particles -- The special relativity of Einstein and Poincaré -- Einstein's general relativity.

Relativistic causality and determinism -- Computability in classical physics: where do we stand? -- Mass, matter, and reality -- 6 Quantum Magic And Quantum Mystery -- Do philosophers need quantum theory? -- Problems with classical theory -- The beginnings of quantum theory -- The two-slit experiment -- Probability amplitudes -- The quantum state of a particle -- The uncertainty principle -- The evolution procedures U and R -- Particles in two places at once? -- Hilbert space -- Measurements -- Spin and the Riemann sphere of states -- Objectivity and measurability of quantum states -- Copying a quantum state -- Photon spin -- Objects with large Spin -- Many-particle systems -- The 'paradox' of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen -- Experiments with photons: a problem for relativity? -- Schrödinger's equation -- Dirac's equation -- Quantum field theory -- Schrödinger's cat -- Various attitudes in existing quantum theory -- Where does all this leave us? -- 7 Cosmology And The Arrow Of Time -- The flow of time -- The inexorable increase of entropy -- What is entropy? -- The second law in action -- The origin of low entropy in the universe -- Cosmology and the big bang -- The primordial fireball -- Does the big bang explain the second law? -- Black holes -- The structure of space-time singularities -- How special was the big bang? -- 8 In Search Of Quantum Gravity -- Why quantum gravity? -- What lies behind the Weyl curvature hypothesis? -- Time-asymmetry in state-vector reduction -- Hawking's box: a link with the Weyl curvature hypothesis? -- When does the state-vector reduce? -- 9 Real Brains And Model Brains -- What are brains actually like? -- Where is the seat of consciousness? -- Split-brain experiments -- Blindsight -- Information processing in the visual cortex -- How do nerve signals work? -- Computer models -- Brain plasticity.

Parallel computers and the 'oneness' of consciousness -- Is there a role for quantum mechanics in brain activity? -- Quantum computers -- Beyond quantum theory? -- 10 Where Lies The Physics Of Mind? -- What are minds for? -- What does consciousness actually do? -- Natural selection of algorithms? -- The non-algorithmic nature of mathematical insight -- Inspiration, insight, and originality -- Non-verbality of thought -- Animal consciousness? -- Contact with Plato's world -- A view of physical reality -- Determinism and strong determinism -- The anthropic principle -- Tilings and quasicrystals -- Possible relevance to brain plasticity -- The time-delays of consciousness -- The strange role of time in conscious perception -- Conclusion: a child's view -- Epilogue -- References -- Index -- Footnotes.

For many decades, the proponents of `artificial intelligence' have maintained that computers will soon be able to do everything that a human can do. In his bestselling work of popular science, Sir Roger Penrose takes us on a fascinating roller-coaster ride through the basic principles of physics, cosmology, mathematics, and philosophy to show that human thinking can never be emulated by a machine.

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Reviews provided by Syndetics

CHOICE Review

Much interest is attendant upon those developments in 20th-century science and mathematics that may be rich in philosophical implications; The Emperor's New Mind will be valued for its excellent summary expositions, for the general reader, of Turing machines, Godel's theorem, chaos, classical and quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, relativity, cosmology, quantum gravity, quasicrystals, and brain neurophysiology. This material forms the foundation for an elaborate argument in support of the book's central thesis: that it is impossible for any computing machine to possess consciousness. This thesis is counter to the position Penrose calls, after J. Searle, strong AI (artificial intelligence), that consciousness is fundamentally algorithmic in nature and may be attributed to any computing device. Penrose, a renowned mathematical physicist, tries to show that, plausibly, certain quantum effects may enable the brain to perform computations that are inaccessible, even in principle, to conventional computers, and that presumably account for consciousness. This would undermine the Church-Turing thesis that even simple models of conventional computers, with enough time and memory, are already able, in principle, to compute anything which is, intuitively speaking, computable. Penrose is forthright about the frankly speculative nature of his arguments, resting, as they do, on as yet undiscovered physics. He is silent on why such new physics might not engender new computing technology as free from the usual constraints as he supposes brains to be. Indeed, his musings on the notion of "consciousness," charming though they are, are no substitute for a penetrating philosophical analysis of that notion. The book is sure to be controversial. -D. V. Feldman, University of New Hampshire

Author notes provided by Syndetics

Born in England, the son of a geneticist, Roger Penrose received a Ph.D. in 1957 from Cambridge University. Penrose then became a professor of applied mathematics at Birkbeck College in 1966 and a Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at Oxford University in 1973. <p> Penrose, a mathematician and theoretical physicist, has done much to elucidate the fundamental properties of black holes. With Stephen Hawking, Penrose proved a theorem of Albert Einstein's general relativity, asserting that at the center of a black hole there must evolve a "space-time singularity" of zero volume and infinite density, in which the current laws of physics do not apply. He also proposed the hypothesis of "cosmic censorship," which claims that such singularities must possess an event horizon. <p> In 1969 Penrose described a process for the extraction of energy from a black hole, as well as how rotational energy of the black hole is transferred to a particle outside the hole. In addition, Penrose has done much to develop the mathematics needed to unite general relativity, which deals with the gravitational interactions of matter, and quantum mechanics, which describes all other interactions. <p> (Bowker Author Biography)

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