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Building Theories : Heuristics and Hypotheses in Sciences.

By: Danks, David.
Contributor(s): Ippoliti, Emiliano.
Material type: TextTextSeries: eBooks on Demand.Studies in Applied Philosophy, Epistemology and Rational Ethics Ser: Publisher: Cham : Springer, 2018Copyright date: ©2018Description: 1 online resource (282 pages).Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9783319727875.Subject(s): Artificial intelligenceGenre/Form: Electronic books.Additional physical formats: Print version:: Building Theories : Heuristics and Hypotheses in SciencesDDC classification: 006.3 LOC classification: BD143-237BF201Q334-3Online resources: Click here to view this ebook.
Contents:
Intro -- Preface -- Contents -- Understanding Theory Building -- 1 Building Theories: The Heuristic Way -- Abstract -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Theory-Building: The Basics -- 2.1 Confirming Hypotheses -- 2.2 Selecting Hypotheses -- 2.3 Generating New Hypotheses -- 2.4 The Distinction of the Three Phases -- 3 Building Theories: The Heuristic Way -- 4 The Heuristic View: A Critical Evaluation -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 2 Building Theories: Strategies Not Blueprints -- Abstract -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Theories-Some Philosophical Background -- 3 Bottom Up-Phenomena to Theory via Modelling -- 4 Top Down-From Mathematics to Physics -- 5 Top Down and Sideways: From Physics to Biology via Mathematics -- 6 Conclusions-Where to Go Next -- References -- 3 Richer Than Reduction -- Abstract -- 1 Routes to Discovery -- 2 Discovery via Constraints -- 3 Case Studies of Constraint-Driven Discovery -- 3.1 Representations of Causal Knowledge -- 3.2 Concepts Based on Causal Structure -- 3.3 Goals and Learning -- 4 Constraints All the Way Up? -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 4 Theory Building as Problem Solving -- Abstract -- 1 Big Data Revolution Versus Theory Building -- 2 Theory Building and Rationality -- 3 The Syntactic or Hypothetico-Deductive View of Theories -- 4 The Semantic or Model-Theoretic View of Theories -- 5 The Analytic View of Theories -- 6 Kepler's Theory Building -- 7 Newton's Theory Building -- 8 Darwin's Theory Building -- 9 Bohr's Theory Building -- 10 Novelty -- 11 Plausibility -- 12 Theory Building and Problem Solving -- 13 A Critical Remark on an Alternative Problem Solving Approach -- 14 The Big Data Revolution Revisited -- 15 The Purpose of Theory Building -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Theory Building in Action -- 5 Discovering Cures in Medicine -- Abstract -- 1 The Distinction Between Discovery and Justification.
2 Example of Einstein's Discovery of Special Relativity -- 3 Application of This Approach to the Discovery of Cures -- 4 Case History (I) Statins -- 5 Case History (II) Thalidomide -- 6 Conclusions -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 6 The Product Guides the Process: Discovering Disease Mechanisms -- Abstract -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Mechanistic Philosophy of Science -- 3 Disease Mechanisms -- 4 Diagrammatic Representations for Genetic Disease Mechanisms -- 5 Web-Based Graphical Interface for Chain Building -- 6 Conclusion -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 7 "Take the Case of a Geometer..." Mathematical Analogies and Building Theories in Aristotle -- Abstract -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Aristotle's Physics Versus Mathematical Physics -- 2.1 Mathematical Physics -- 2.2 Aristotle's Physics -- 2.3 The Ontological Gap -- 3 Aristotle's Mathematics: A Reference Structure -- 4 Theory of Knowledge and Problem Solving -- 4.1 The Two-step Process of Knowing -- 4.2 The Many-step Process of Problem Solving -- 4.2.1 To Know 2R -- 4.2.2 To Use 2R (in Order to Know SC) -- 4.2.3 The Solving Idea -- 4.2.4 Conclusions -- 5 Mathematical Analogies and Building Science -- 5.1 Theoretical Work: Induction and Deduction -- 5.2 Practical Work: Problem Solving -- 5.3 The Natural Place of Mathematics -- Bibliography -- 8 Activation of the Eddy Mental Schema, Multiple Analogies and Their Heuristic Cooperation in the Historical Development of Fluid Dynamics -- Abstract -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Views of Analogy -- 3 The Eureka of Bernoulli via the Contemplation of an Eddy -- 4 Reynold's Eddies in Sinuous Flow -- 5 Conclusions -- References -- New Models of Theory Building -- 9 TTT: A Fast Heuristic to New Theories? -- Abstract -- 1 What Is TTT? -- 2 Examples from Cognitive Psychology -- 3 Why Is TTT Important? -- 4 Other Examples of TTT: Informational Biology?.
5 Other Examples of TTT: Digital Physics? -- 6 Some Difficulties for TTT Digital Physics -- 7 More General TTT Difficulties -- 8 Dynamical Coupling and Bootstrapping, Good and Bad -- 9 Weak Versus Strong TTT: Is There a Cost? -- 10 Conclusion: Human-Centered Science and the Simon Tradition -- References -- 10 Heuristic Logic. A Kernel -- Abstract -- 1 Reasons for a Heuristic Logic -- 2 Heuristic Logic: A Theoretical Framework -- 3 A Matter of Method: When the Method Matters -- 3.1 Analysis and Deduction -- 4 Heuristic Logic: A Characterization -- 4.1 Heuristics: Ways of Creating Problem-Spaces -- 4.2 The Role of Background Knowledge -- 4.3 The Unity of Problem-Solving and Problem-Finding: A Few Examples -- 5 Heuristics: Primitive and Derived -- 5.1 Primitive Heuristics: The Building Blocks -- 6 Derived Heuristics: The Scaffoldings -- 6.1 Inversion Heuristics -- 6.1.1 Reframing the Problem in Terms of Its Opposite -- 6.1.2 Make the Opposite Assumption -- 6.2 The Heuristics of Switching -- 6.2.1 Changing the Unit of Analysis -- 6.2.2 Changing the Level of Analysis -- 6.2.3 Processes Versus Variables -- 6.3 Other Examples of Derived Heuristics -- 6.3.1 Extreme Cases -- 6.3.2 Thought Experiment -- 6.3.3 Scenario-Building -- 7 Reducibility of the Derived Heuristics -- 8 Heuristics: Generative and Selective -- 9 Ampliativity and the Derivative Nature of Selective Heuristics -- 10 The Power of Heuristic Reasoning: Combining Heuristics -- 10.1 Multiple Analogies -- Acknowledgements -- 11 The Noetic Account of Scientific Progress and the Factivity of Understanding -- Abstract -- 1 Introduction -- 2 The Main Accounts of Scientific Progress -- 2.1 Bird's Criticism of the Semantic Account -- 2.2 Bird's Criticism of the Problem-Solving Account -- 3 The Noetic Account of Scientific Progress -- 3.1 Progress Without Knowledge Increase.
3.2 Knowledge Increase Without Progress -- 4 Knowledge and Understanding: The Problem of the Factivity of Knowledge -- 5 The Noetic Conception as a Realist Conception of Progress -- 5.1 First Option: Affirming the Incompatibility of QM and GTR -- 5.2 Second Option: Denying the Incompatibility of QM and GTR -- 6 Factivity and Modality -- 7 Understanding and Modalism -- 8 Conclusion -- References -- 12 Rhythms, Retention and Protention: Philosophical Reflections on Geometrical Schemata for Biological Time -- Abstract -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Philosophy and Geometrical Schemata for Biological Time -- 2.1 Constitutive Space and Time -- 2.2 Dichotomous External/Internal Reference Systems -- 3 Retention and Protention -- 4 Biological Inertia -- 5 Biological Rhythms, A Geometrical Schema for Life Phenomena -- 6 Conclusion -- References -- 13 How to Build New Hypotheses -- Abstract -- 1 Eco-cognitive Model of Abduction (EC-Model), Aristotle's Ἀπαγωγή, and Its Eco-cognitive Openness -- 1.1 Selective and Creative Abductions and the Optimization of Eco-cognitive Situatedness -- 2 Anticipations as Abductions -- 2.1 Adumbrations and the Generation of the Three-Dimensional Space: Abduction in Embodiment and in Distributed Cognition Environments -- 2.2 Anticipations as Abductions -- 3 Diagram Construction in Geometry Is a Kind of Manipulative Abduction -- 3.1 Iconic Brain and External Diagrammatization Coevuolution -- 4 Conclusion -- Acknowledgements -- References.
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Intro -- Preface -- Contents -- Understanding Theory Building -- 1 Building Theories: The Heuristic Way -- Abstract -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Theory-Building: The Basics -- 2.1 Confirming Hypotheses -- 2.2 Selecting Hypotheses -- 2.3 Generating New Hypotheses -- 2.4 The Distinction of the Three Phases -- 3 Building Theories: The Heuristic Way -- 4 The Heuristic View: A Critical Evaluation -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 2 Building Theories: Strategies Not Blueprints -- Abstract -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Theories-Some Philosophical Background -- 3 Bottom Up-Phenomena to Theory via Modelling -- 4 Top Down-From Mathematics to Physics -- 5 Top Down and Sideways: From Physics to Biology via Mathematics -- 6 Conclusions-Where to Go Next -- References -- 3 Richer Than Reduction -- Abstract -- 1 Routes to Discovery -- 2 Discovery via Constraints -- 3 Case Studies of Constraint-Driven Discovery -- 3.1 Representations of Causal Knowledge -- 3.2 Concepts Based on Causal Structure -- 3.3 Goals and Learning -- 4 Constraints All the Way Up? -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 4 Theory Building as Problem Solving -- Abstract -- 1 Big Data Revolution Versus Theory Building -- 2 Theory Building and Rationality -- 3 The Syntactic or Hypothetico-Deductive View of Theories -- 4 The Semantic or Model-Theoretic View of Theories -- 5 The Analytic View of Theories -- 6 Kepler's Theory Building -- 7 Newton's Theory Building -- 8 Darwin's Theory Building -- 9 Bohr's Theory Building -- 10 Novelty -- 11 Plausibility -- 12 Theory Building and Problem Solving -- 13 A Critical Remark on an Alternative Problem Solving Approach -- 14 The Big Data Revolution Revisited -- 15 The Purpose of Theory Building -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Theory Building in Action -- 5 Discovering Cures in Medicine -- Abstract -- 1 The Distinction Between Discovery and Justification.

2 Example of Einstein's Discovery of Special Relativity -- 3 Application of This Approach to the Discovery of Cures -- 4 Case History (I) Statins -- 5 Case History (II) Thalidomide -- 6 Conclusions -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 6 The Product Guides the Process: Discovering Disease Mechanisms -- Abstract -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Mechanistic Philosophy of Science -- 3 Disease Mechanisms -- 4 Diagrammatic Representations for Genetic Disease Mechanisms -- 5 Web-Based Graphical Interface for Chain Building -- 6 Conclusion -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 7 "Take the Case of a Geometer..." Mathematical Analogies and Building Theories in Aristotle -- Abstract -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Aristotle's Physics Versus Mathematical Physics -- 2.1 Mathematical Physics -- 2.2 Aristotle's Physics -- 2.3 The Ontological Gap -- 3 Aristotle's Mathematics: A Reference Structure -- 4 Theory of Knowledge and Problem Solving -- 4.1 The Two-step Process of Knowing -- 4.2 The Many-step Process of Problem Solving -- 4.2.1 To Know 2R -- 4.2.2 To Use 2R (in Order to Know SC) -- 4.2.3 The Solving Idea -- 4.2.4 Conclusions -- 5 Mathematical Analogies and Building Science -- 5.1 Theoretical Work: Induction and Deduction -- 5.2 Practical Work: Problem Solving -- 5.3 The Natural Place of Mathematics -- Bibliography -- 8 Activation of the Eddy Mental Schema, Multiple Analogies and Their Heuristic Cooperation in the Historical Development of Fluid Dynamics -- Abstract -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Views of Analogy -- 3 The Eureka of Bernoulli via the Contemplation of an Eddy -- 4 Reynold's Eddies in Sinuous Flow -- 5 Conclusions -- References -- New Models of Theory Building -- 9 TTT: A Fast Heuristic to New Theories? -- Abstract -- 1 What Is TTT? -- 2 Examples from Cognitive Psychology -- 3 Why Is TTT Important? -- 4 Other Examples of TTT: Informational Biology?.

5 Other Examples of TTT: Digital Physics? -- 6 Some Difficulties for TTT Digital Physics -- 7 More General TTT Difficulties -- 8 Dynamical Coupling and Bootstrapping, Good and Bad -- 9 Weak Versus Strong TTT: Is There a Cost? -- 10 Conclusion: Human-Centered Science and the Simon Tradition -- References -- 10 Heuristic Logic. A Kernel -- Abstract -- 1 Reasons for a Heuristic Logic -- 2 Heuristic Logic: A Theoretical Framework -- 3 A Matter of Method: When the Method Matters -- 3.1 Analysis and Deduction -- 4 Heuristic Logic: A Characterization -- 4.1 Heuristics: Ways of Creating Problem-Spaces -- 4.2 The Role of Background Knowledge -- 4.3 The Unity of Problem-Solving and Problem-Finding: A Few Examples -- 5 Heuristics: Primitive and Derived -- 5.1 Primitive Heuristics: The Building Blocks -- 6 Derived Heuristics: The Scaffoldings -- 6.1 Inversion Heuristics -- 6.1.1 Reframing the Problem in Terms of Its Opposite -- 6.1.2 Make the Opposite Assumption -- 6.2 The Heuristics of Switching -- 6.2.1 Changing the Unit of Analysis -- 6.2.2 Changing the Level of Analysis -- 6.2.3 Processes Versus Variables -- 6.3 Other Examples of Derived Heuristics -- 6.3.1 Extreme Cases -- 6.3.2 Thought Experiment -- 6.3.3 Scenario-Building -- 7 Reducibility of the Derived Heuristics -- 8 Heuristics: Generative and Selective -- 9 Ampliativity and the Derivative Nature of Selective Heuristics -- 10 The Power of Heuristic Reasoning: Combining Heuristics -- 10.1 Multiple Analogies -- Acknowledgements -- 11 The Noetic Account of Scientific Progress and the Factivity of Understanding -- Abstract -- 1 Introduction -- 2 The Main Accounts of Scientific Progress -- 2.1 Bird's Criticism of the Semantic Account -- 2.2 Bird's Criticism of the Problem-Solving Account -- 3 The Noetic Account of Scientific Progress -- 3.1 Progress Without Knowledge Increase.

3.2 Knowledge Increase Without Progress -- 4 Knowledge and Understanding: The Problem of the Factivity of Knowledge -- 5 The Noetic Conception as a Realist Conception of Progress -- 5.1 First Option: Affirming the Incompatibility of QM and GTR -- 5.2 Second Option: Denying the Incompatibility of QM and GTR -- 6 Factivity and Modality -- 7 Understanding and Modalism -- 8 Conclusion -- References -- 12 Rhythms, Retention and Protention: Philosophical Reflections on Geometrical Schemata for Biological Time -- Abstract -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Philosophy and Geometrical Schemata for Biological Time -- 2.1 Constitutive Space and Time -- 2.2 Dichotomous External/Internal Reference Systems -- 3 Retention and Protention -- 4 Biological Inertia -- 5 Biological Rhythms, A Geometrical Schema for Life Phenomena -- 6 Conclusion -- References -- 13 How to Build New Hypotheses -- Abstract -- 1 Eco-cognitive Model of Abduction (EC-Model), Aristotle's Ἀπαγωγή, and Its Eco-cognitive Openness -- 1.1 Selective and Creative Abductions and the Optimization of Eco-cognitive Situatedness -- 2 Anticipations as Abductions -- 2.1 Adumbrations and the Generation of the Three-Dimensional Space: Abduction in Embodiment and in Distributed Cognition Environments -- 2.2 Anticipations as Abductions -- 3 Diagram Construction in Geometry Is a Kind of Manipulative Abduction -- 3.1 Iconic Brain and External Diagrammatization Coevuolution -- 4 Conclusion -- Acknowledgements -- References.

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