Gender and HIV in South Africa : Advancing Women's Health and Capabilities.
By: Sprague, Courtenay.Material type: TextSeries: eBooks on Demand.Global Research in Gender, Sexuality and Health Ser: Publisher: London : Palgrave Macmillan Limited, 2018Copyright date: ©2018Description: 1 online resource (423 pages).Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781137559975.Subject(s): AIDS (Disease) in women-Social aspects-South Africa | HIV-positive women-South Africa-Social conditions | Women-Health and hygiene-South AfricaGenre/Form: Electronic books.Additional physical formats: Print version:: Gender and HIV in South Africa : Advancing Women's Health and CapabilitiesDDC classification: 362.19697920082 Online resources: Click here to view this ebook.
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|Electronic Book||UT Tyler Online Online||HM671HD72-HD88HM401- (Browse shelf)||https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uttyler/detail.action?docID=5400683||Available||EBC5400683|
Intro -- Preface -- Crossing the Threshold -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- List of Abbreviations -- List of Figures -- List of Tables -- 1: Introduction -- Global Health Improvements Alongside Increasing Social Health Inequalities -- Aims and Scope -- The Capabilities Approach: A Conceptual Framework for Investigating Women's Opportunities to Be Healthy -- Road Map for the Journey: Preview of Chapters -- References -- Part I: HIV, Gender and Health in Black South African Women -- 2: Health Outcomes and Social Factors Influencing Women's HIV Acquisition in Social Context -- Part 1: HIV Trends in African Women Against Global Health Gains -- HIV Prevalence in South Africa: Unequal Distribution of HIV Infection -- Burden of HIV by Age and Gender -- Black South African Women: Life Expectancy Declines Against Global Gains -- Mortality -- Part 2: Interrogating the Social Basis Underlying Differential HIV Risk in Black South African Women -- Key Factors Facilitating HIV Transmission in Social Context -- Understanding HIV Risk for Women in South and Southern Africa -- Conceptualising Risk and Risk Factors -- The Structural Level: Gender, Sexuality and HIV Risk -- Social Position -- Socioeconomic Status -- Low Economic Participation -- Childhood Sexual Abuse -- Early Sexual Debut -- Age-Disparate Sexual Partnerships -- Social Constructions of Gender -- Gender Socialisation -- Aspirations, Risk Practices and Women's Constrained Agency -- Sexual Agency -- Gender-Based Violence (GBV) -- Rape and Forced Sex -- Intimate Partner (Domestic) Violence -- Biological Factors -- Part 3: Moving from Empirical Evidence to Normative Considerations -- References -- 3: HIV Care: Prevailing Trends, Barriers and Paradoxes -- The HIV Policy Framework -- Global UNAIDS 90/90/90 Targets (by 2020) -- The HIV Care Continuum.
South African Women Living with HIV: More Likely to Access HIV Care but Disproportionate Care Needed -- Key Trends from Sub-Saharan and South Africa -- Health Systems' Factors -- Fragmentation of HIV Care, Lack of Linkage Between Facilities (or Wards) That Serve Women and Poor Referral Networks Characterise Care Continuum -- Themes on Barriers to cART in LMICs and South Africa -- Quality of Care, Low Provider Knowledge and Lack of Training -- Shortages of Staff and Supplies (Including Stockouts of Antiretrovirals) -- Drug Stockouts in South Africa -- Poor Treatment of Women by Providers and Relational Factors -- Confidentiality Concerns Cited by Women -- Poor Patient-Provider Relationships -- Intrapersonal Barriers -- Women's Lack of Knowledge of cART, PMTCT and Treatment Guidelines -- Practical Demands of Time and Travel in cART Management Affects Adherence -- Younger Age and Being First Time Mother Associated with Poorer Outcomes -- Poor Mental Health Affects Adherence and Retention -- Studies Documenting Poor Mental Health Among HIV Positive Women -- Interpersonal Barriers -- HIV Non-disclosure to Partners and Other Family Members -- Structural Barriers -- Economic Factors and Low Socioeconomic Status (SES) Associated with Poorer Access to HIV Care, Increased Dropout and Higher AIDS-Related Mortality -- Economic Factors Affecting HIV Care Access and Outcomes -- Rural Residence -- Data on Rural Populations -- IPV, Gender-Based Violence and HIV -- HIV Stigma: Multi-level, Cross-cutting Barrier to HIV Care -- Human Rights Violations -- Results of Human Rights Studies and Surveys -- References -- 4: Conceptualising Justice in Health as Opportunities to Be Healthy (Capabilities) -- Aristotelian Foundations: Justice as Equality in Some Sense -- The Special Nature of Health -- Quality of Life and Premature Death -- Social Values and Social Policy.
Just Health or Just Health Care? -- The Capabilities Approach -- Process and Opportunity Freedoms -- Agency -- The Moral Importance of Health and Implications -- Women in the Capabilities Approach -- Strengths and Limitations of Capabilities as a Conceptual Framework -- How the Capabilities Approach Is Used in This Project -- References -- Part II: Capabilities for Black South African Women: Gender as a Structural Health Determinant -- 5: Methodological Considerations and Research Methods to Advance Social Justice -- Context Setting -- Making Normative Social Justice Commitments in Research Designs and Methods -- Social Justice Research Methods for Social Transformation: The 'Hidden Power of Method' -- Qualitative Methods in HIV and Equity Research -- The Internal -- The External -- Electing Qualitative Design and Methods in cART Research on South African Women Living with HIV -- Study Setting and Methods -- Sites and Sampling Procedures -- Study Population-Black Women Participants Living with HIV -- Key Informants (a): Health Providers with Knowledge of the Study Population -- Key Informants (b): Subject Experts in Relevant Research and Policy Domains -- Data Management and Analysis -- Challenges and Responsibilities in the Research Process -- Navigating Ethical Dimensions -- References -- 6: Capabilities for Women Living with HIV: Linking Health Systems to Social Structure -- Socio-Demographics by Province -- Gauteng -- Eastern Cape -- Employment Participation: South African Women -- Socioeconomic Characteristics of South African Pregnant and Postnatal Women Living with HIV -- Part 1. Findings -- HIV Positive Women Participants in Clinical Health Settings-The Internal -- Control over Bodily Health Through Careful Management of HIV Disclosure -- Education About cART and PMTCT -- The External -- Gender and Constraints to Health Decision Making.
Provider Perceptions of Gender Relations and Norms -- Socialisation into the Gender Hierarchy: Cultural Customs and Harmful Masculinities -- Key Informants in Policy, Academia and Health Systems -- The Policy Environment for Women's Health in South Africa: Highly Progressive in the 1990s -- The AIDS Movement Should Take on Gender-Or the Feminist Movement Should Take on AIDS? -- Conservatism -- HIV and Gender-Based Violence -- The Biomedical vs. the Social Model -- Part 2. Discussion -- Applying the Capabilities Approach to the Findings -- Mental Health -- Women's Inability to Access Employment as a Capability -- References -- Part III: Moving from Evidence to Action -- 7: Gender-Transformative Structural Interventions to Advance South African Women's Capabilities -- Evolving Concepts and Evidence -- Core Elements Within Effective Gender-Transformative Interventions -- Structure and Social Theory -- GTI Case Studies -- Stepping Stones Aims and History -- Core Activities and Approach -- IMAGE Aims and History -- Core Activities and Approach -- Assessment: Evidence of Effectiveness, Strengths and Limitations -- Themes and Relevance for Supporting Women's Capabilities -- A Participant-Centred and Community-Based Approach to Social Change -- Additional Debates and Key Challenges -- Addressing the Economic Inequalities and Poverty Underpinning IPV and HIV Risk -- Role of Economic Interventions in Increasing IPV -- Psychological and Behavioural Factors -- Sustainability, Type of Models and Organisations Working in Partnership -- The Timeline for Social Change -- Aligning with Processes of Social Transformation: Capitalising on NGOs as Agents of Social Change -- References -- 8: Assessing Equity in Health and Women's Opportunities to Be Healthy -- Assessing Inequities in Health: Definitions and Guiding Criteria.
Capabilities and Rights: Deprivations and Infringements -- On the Right to Freedom and Security of the Person (Bodily Integrity) (Section 12) -- On the Right to Health Care Including Reproductive Health Services (Section 27), the Capability of Bodily Health, the Right to Life (Section 11) and the Capability of Life -- Final Assessment vis-à-vis Health Equity -- Implications -- Social Evaluation Process: A Social and Moral Accounting -- Objections -- References -- 9: Concluding Reflections: From Research to Policy and Practice -- On Capabilities as a Conceptual Approach: Utility, Strengths and Limitations -- Limitations -- Reflections on Health Equity Assessments -- On the Gender Order -- On Protective Factors that Support Women's Agency and Capabilities -- The Health System as a Transformative Social System -- Connecting Research and Methods to Policy and Practice to Advance Gender Transformation -- Masculinities and Changing Men -- Neglected Women and Key Populations -- Agency, Women's Sexuality and Wellbeing -- HIV-IPV Links and Pathways -- A National Strategic Plan on Gender-Based Violence -- Routine GBV and IPV Data Indicators and Timely Release of Health Data -- Addressing VAWG in the Health System -- Normative Frameworks, Indicators and Monitoring to Protect and Promote Human Rights -- Theorising the HIV Care Continuum -- Mental Health and Care -- Research Methods: Making Normative Commitments to Advance Social Justice -- Standing on a New Threshold -- References -- References -- Index.
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