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Undecided Nation : Political Gridlock and the Immigration Crisis.

By: Payan, Tony.
Contributor(s): de la Garza, Erika.
Material type: TextTextSeries: eBooks on Demand.Immigrants and Minorities, Politics and Policy Ser: Publisher: Cham : Springer, 2014Copyright date: ©2014Description: 1 online resource (346 pages).Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9783319064802.Subject(s): Emigration and immigration law -- United States.;United States -- Emigration and immigration -- Government policyGenre/Form: Electronic books.Additional physical formats: Print version:: Undecided Nation : Political Gridlock and the Immigration CrisisDDC classification: 325.73 LOC classification: JA1-92Online resources: Click here to view this ebook.
Contents:
Intro -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- Contributors -- List of Figures -- List of Tables -- Introduction -- Changes in the National Political Landscape: Down and Up...and Down Again -- Congressional Dynamics: Between the Senate and the House or a Rock and a Hard Place -- The Four Corners of Immigration Reform -- The Undocumented Resident Population: The 11 Million Ghosts Living in the Shadows -- New Visa System -- Domestic Enforcement -- Border Security -- Military-Industrial Complex -- Bureaucracy and Human Rights -- The Future of the Labor Market in North America -- Outline of the Book -- References -- Part I -- The Politics Behind the Gridlock -- The Congressional Dynamics of Immigration Reform -- Introduction -- Congressional Power and Disorienting Conflict: The Challenges of Immigration Reform -- Uneasy Coalitions and Faustian Bargains -- Mexican Labor and the First World War -- "Restrictions...with a bribe": Closing the Ports and Opening the Borders -- Mexican Braceros and Undocumented Aliens -- From Prolonged Gridlock to the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 -- Expanding the Scope of Conflict: Huddled Elites and Popular Mobilization -- References -- Latino Issue Priorities and Political Behavior Across US Contexts -- Introduction -- Previous Research on Immigration, Latino Attitudes, and Local Context -- Theory and Expectations -- Data and Methods -- Results -- Robustness Checks -- Discussion of Results -- Policy Implications -- Appendix -- References -- Immigration Policy Versus Immigration Politics: Latinos and the Reform Debate -- Introduction -- The Larger Context: Other Policy Changes -- The Larger Context: The Evangelical Dimension -- Latino Population Growth: Past the Electoral Threshold? -- The New Immigration Debate: Politics Versus Policies -- Conclusions -- References -- Part II.
Local Responses to Federal Paralysis -- Immigration Policy and Partisan Politics in the State Legislatures: 2010-2012 -- Immigration Policy and Partisan Politics in the State Legislatures: 2010-2012 -- The Omnibus Immigration Legislation -- Statistical Analysis -- A. Analysis Population -- B. Partisanship and Support for/Opposition to the Omnibus Legislation -- C. Intraparty Dynamics and Support for/Opposition to the Omnibus Legislation -- Public Policy Implications -- Conclusion -- Appendix 1: Synopses of the Omnibus Legislation by State -- 1. Alabama HB56 -- 2. Arizona SB1070 and HB2162 -- 3. Florida HB7089 -- 4. Georgia HB87 -- 5. Indiana SB590 -- 6. Kentucky SB6 -- 7. Maryland HB744 -- 8. Mississippi HB488 -- 9. Oklahoma SB908 and HB1446 -- 10. South Carolina SB20 -- 11. Utah H116, HB466, HB469, HB497 -- H116 -- H466 -- H469 -- H497 (The Bill Examined in the Roll Call Vote Analysis) -- References -- The Immigration Debate in Texas -- Introduction -- Major Initiatives on Immigrants and Immigration in Texas -- The 287(g) Program and Sanctuary City Resolutions -- The 2013 Legislative Session and the Post-electoral Scenario in Texas -- Changing Demographics and the Latino Vote -- The National Context and Texas' Stands on Immigration -- Public Policy Implications -- Conclusion -- References -- US Immigration Policy in the Twenty-First Century, with Special Reference to Education: Examining Crosscurrents of Nativist and Accommodationist Policymaking -- Introduction -- A Thumbnail Sketch of State Laws Concerning Undocumented College Students -- Spring 2012 Developments -- Conclusion: The Crosscurrents -- References -- Part III -- The Fallout and Costs of Political Gridlock -- The Costs and Benefits of Immigration Enforcement -- Introduction -- "Enforcement Only" Is Costly, Ineffective, and Counterproductive -- High Costs and No Benefits.
The Unintended Consequences of Border Enforcement -- Demographic Trends in Mexico -- Lessons from the IRCA of 1986 -- Legalized Workers Earn More and Move on to Better Jobs -- Legal Status Yields Increasing Returns Over Time -- Effective Immigration Reform Must Address Future Flows -- Three Immigration Policy Scenarios -- Scenario 1: Comprehensive Immigration Reform -- Scenario 2: Temporary Workers Only -- Scenario 3: Mass Deportation -- The Economic Benefits of Comprehensive Immigration Reform -- Conclusion: From a Vicious Cycle to a Virtuous Cycle -- Appendix 1: Methodology -- CGE Modeling -- The GMig2 Database -- The GMig2 Model -- Appendix 2: Macroeconomic Results of Different Scenarios -- Appendix 3: Annual Impact on GDP of Different Scenarios, 2009-2019 -- Appendix 4: Impact of Different Scenarios on Various Sectors -- References -- Immigrants in the US Labor Market -- Introduction -- Trends in Immigration -- A. Countries of Origin -- B. Education and Occupation Distribution -- C. Geographic Distribution -- Effect on Economic Activity -- A. Immigration and GDP -- B. Immigration Surplus: Education and Spillovers -- C. Migrant Mobility -- D. Immigration and Economic Growth -- Labor Market Effects -- Fiscal Effects -- Policy Implications -- A. Family Reunification Policy -- B. Immigration Reform -- Conclusion -- References -- Workers, Families, and Immigration Policies -- Introduction -- Unauthorized Immigration in the USA -- Immigration Enforcement and the Labor Market -- The Economic Precarity of Undocumented Workers and Their Families -- The Effect of Unauthorized Status on Family Relationships -- Debilitating Fear -- How US Citizens Also Suffer -- Undocumented Status and Family Separation -- Conclusion -- Policy Recommendations -- References -- US Children with Parents in Deportation Proceedings -- Introduction -- Method.
Findings: Family Economic Hardship -- Loss of Parental Employment -- Lower Household Incomes -- Dependence on Private Charity and Public Assistance -- Food Insufficiency -- Crowded and Unstable Housing -- Parental Mental Health -- Stressors Affecting Parental Mental Health -- Impacts on Parental Physical Health -- Thoughts of Suicide -- Support from Family, Friends, Churches, and Mental Health Professionals -- Impacts on Child Behavior -- Impact of Family Economic Security -- Fears of Arrest by Immigration Agents or the Police -- Separation due to Parental Detention or Deportation -- Reaction to Ankle Bracelets -- Conclusion -- References -- Part IV -- Resolving the Immigration Crisis -- Security and Immigration Policy: An Analytical Framework for Reform -- Introduction -- Two American Immigration Security Traditions -- Human Security, National Security, and American Immigration -- National Security and US Immigration Policy -- Material and Military Objectives and US Immigration -- Foreign Policy Objectives and US Immigration Policy -- Domestic Security Objectives and US Immigration Policy -- Meta-Security Themes and American Immigration Policy History -- Aggressively Open Period: The "Open-Door" Federal Immigration Policy, 1776-1921 -- The Selectively Closed Era, 1921-1965: The Restrictive and Discriminatory Quota Laws -- The Cautiously Open Era, 1965-2001 -- Conclusion and Policy Recommendations -- Post-2001 US Immigration Policy -- Policy Implications -- Implications for 2013 Proposed Immigration Reform -- References -- Bibliography -- Ctrl + Alt + Del: Rebooting Immigration Policies Through Socio-technical Change -- Introduction -- Socio-technical Systems and Regimes: A Public Policy Issue -- The Socio-Technical Regime and the Immigration System -- Legacy Technology: The Immigration Socio-technical Regime of the US.
A. Subsystem 1: Government Technologies -- B. Subsystem 2: Clandestine Technologies -- C. Subsystem 3: Business Technologies -- Nation of Immigrants 2.0? Some Policy Recommendations -- Leadership for Sense-making -- Adaptive Designs -- Technological Transition is Negotiation -- Data, Not Aspirations -- A Chief Information Officer to Adapt Immigration Flows -- Risk Management Approaches -- Future Thinking Capacities for the Age of the Unthinkable -- Zero-Day Vulnerabilities and the Obsolescence Path -- References -- US Immigration, Demography, and Citizenship in a Digital Age -- Introduction -- Research Highlights on Demography, Immigration, and Citizenship -- A. The Foreign Born in the USA: Overall Numbers and Share of Population -- B. The Foreign Born in the USA: Demographic Snapshots -- C. More Recent Trends: 2000-2010 -- Age -- D. The New Geography of Immigration -- E. Other Socioeconomic Issues: High-Speed Internet Access and Language Proficiency -- 1. Internet Access -- 2. Language Proficiency -- F. Implications -- The Integration of the Foreign Born: Toward Citizenship -- Discussion: Alternative Policy Paths in a World of "Digital" Citizenship -- Toward the Future: Two Divergent Policy Paths -- A. Policy Pathway #1: Immigration and Citizenship Status Quo -- B. Policy Pathway #2: Alternative Futures for Immigration and Citizenship -- References -- The Path to US Immigration Reform -- Historical Patterns of Immigration Reform -- Recent Efforts at Immigration Reform -- Current Immigration Policies -- Legal Permanent Residents -- Temporary Workers -- Unauthorized Migration -- Problems in the Immigration System -- Unauthorized Migration -- Inflexible Ceilings -- Inadequate Mechanisms to Protect the Rights of Workers -- Is Temporary Ever Temporary? -- Complexity in the Immigration System -- Elusive Reform Prospects -- Conclusion -- References.
Conclusion.
Summary: There is a broad consensus that the United States' immigration system is broken, yet the political momentum behind the movement has not yet led to a consensus on how to fix it. This momentum has stemmed from the agreement that we have an immigration "crisis" on our hands - millions of undocumented immigrants living and working in the United States under increasingly harsh conditions, tremendous spending on border security and enforcement measures without protection of civil rights, changing voter demographics, and other pressing issues have ushered in the moment for immigration reform. This book presents research and policy recommendations from leading U.S. immigration experts and scholars, who have many valuable insights and nuanced perspectives to offer to the current debate on immigration reform. The goal of this immigration study is to disseminate knowledge and policy recommendations to scholars, government officials, the media, and the general policy community on vital issues regarding the present question of immigration reform. This book discusses the future prospects of immigration reform and delves into various details, options, and obstacles related to immigration reform. The chapters presented shed light on a number of issues that are currently being debated in the immigration bill. Some of them address the salience of the immigration issue in Latino political behavior and the impact of demographic context. Other papers hone in on the landscape of legislative initiatives addressing immigration at the state and local levels, and some authors address the implications of immigration reform for the labor market and economic climate. The book will be of interest to both scholars and policy-makers concerned with immigration in the United States.
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Intro -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- Contributors -- List of Figures -- List of Tables -- Introduction -- Changes in the National Political Landscape: Down and Up...and Down Again -- Congressional Dynamics: Between the Senate and the House or a Rock and a Hard Place -- The Four Corners of Immigration Reform -- The Undocumented Resident Population: The 11 Million Ghosts Living in the Shadows -- New Visa System -- Domestic Enforcement -- Border Security -- Military-Industrial Complex -- Bureaucracy and Human Rights -- The Future of the Labor Market in North America -- Outline of the Book -- References -- Part I -- The Politics Behind the Gridlock -- The Congressional Dynamics of Immigration Reform -- Introduction -- Congressional Power and Disorienting Conflict: The Challenges of Immigration Reform -- Uneasy Coalitions and Faustian Bargains -- Mexican Labor and the First World War -- "Restrictions...with a bribe": Closing the Ports and Opening the Borders -- Mexican Braceros and Undocumented Aliens -- From Prolonged Gridlock to the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 -- Expanding the Scope of Conflict: Huddled Elites and Popular Mobilization -- References -- Latino Issue Priorities and Political Behavior Across US Contexts -- Introduction -- Previous Research on Immigration, Latino Attitudes, and Local Context -- Theory and Expectations -- Data and Methods -- Results -- Robustness Checks -- Discussion of Results -- Policy Implications -- Appendix -- References -- Immigration Policy Versus Immigration Politics: Latinos and the Reform Debate -- Introduction -- The Larger Context: Other Policy Changes -- The Larger Context: The Evangelical Dimension -- Latino Population Growth: Past the Electoral Threshold? -- The New Immigration Debate: Politics Versus Policies -- Conclusions -- References -- Part II.

Local Responses to Federal Paralysis -- Immigration Policy and Partisan Politics in the State Legislatures: 2010-2012 -- Immigration Policy and Partisan Politics in the State Legislatures: 2010-2012 -- The Omnibus Immigration Legislation -- Statistical Analysis -- A. Analysis Population -- B. Partisanship and Support for/Opposition to the Omnibus Legislation -- C. Intraparty Dynamics and Support for/Opposition to the Omnibus Legislation -- Public Policy Implications -- Conclusion -- Appendix 1: Synopses of the Omnibus Legislation by State -- 1. Alabama HB56 -- 2. Arizona SB1070 and HB2162 -- 3. Florida HB7089 -- 4. Georgia HB87 -- 5. Indiana SB590 -- 6. Kentucky SB6 -- 7. Maryland HB744 -- 8. Mississippi HB488 -- 9. Oklahoma SB908 and HB1446 -- 10. South Carolina SB20 -- 11. Utah H116, HB466, HB469, HB497 -- H116 -- H466 -- H469 -- H497 (The Bill Examined in the Roll Call Vote Analysis) -- References -- The Immigration Debate in Texas -- Introduction -- Major Initiatives on Immigrants and Immigration in Texas -- The 287(g) Program and Sanctuary City Resolutions -- The 2013 Legislative Session and the Post-electoral Scenario in Texas -- Changing Demographics and the Latino Vote -- The National Context and Texas' Stands on Immigration -- Public Policy Implications -- Conclusion -- References -- US Immigration Policy in the Twenty-First Century, with Special Reference to Education: Examining Crosscurrents of Nativist and Accommodationist Policymaking -- Introduction -- A Thumbnail Sketch of State Laws Concerning Undocumented College Students -- Spring 2012 Developments -- Conclusion: The Crosscurrents -- References -- Part III -- The Fallout and Costs of Political Gridlock -- The Costs and Benefits of Immigration Enforcement -- Introduction -- "Enforcement Only" Is Costly, Ineffective, and Counterproductive -- High Costs and No Benefits.

The Unintended Consequences of Border Enforcement -- Demographic Trends in Mexico -- Lessons from the IRCA of 1986 -- Legalized Workers Earn More and Move on to Better Jobs -- Legal Status Yields Increasing Returns Over Time -- Effective Immigration Reform Must Address Future Flows -- Three Immigration Policy Scenarios -- Scenario 1: Comprehensive Immigration Reform -- Scenario 2: Temporary Workers Only -- Scenario 3: Mass Deportation -- The Economic Benefits of Comprehensive Immigration Reform -- Conclusion: From a Vicious Cycle to a Virtuous Cycle -- Appendix 1: Methodology -- CGE Modeling -- The GMig2 Database -- The GMig2 Model -- Appendix 2: Macroeconomic Results of Different Scenarios -- Appendix 3: Annual Impact on GDP of Different Scenarios, 2009-2019 -- Appendix 4: Impact of Different Scenarios on Various Sectors -- References -- Immigrants in the US Labor Market -- Introduction -- Trends in Immigration -- A. Countries of Origin -- B. Education and Occupation Distribution -- C. Geographic Distribution -- Effect on Economic Activity -- A. Immigration and GDP -- B. Immigration Surplus: Education and Spillovers -- C. Migrant Mobility -- D. Immigration and Economic Growth -- Labor Market Effects -- Fiscal Effects -- Policy Implications -- A. Family Reunification Policy -- B. Immigration Reform -- Conclusion -- References -- Workers, Families, and Immigration Policies -- Introduction -- Unauthorized Immigration in the USA -- Immigration Enforcement and the Labor Market -- The Economic Precarity of Undocumented Workers and Their Families -- The Effect of Unauthorized Status on Family Relationships -- Debilitating Fear -- How US Citizens Also Suffer -- Undocumented Status and Family Separation -- Conclusion -- Policy Recommendations -- References -- US Children with Parents in Deportation Proceedings -- Introduction -- Method.

Findings: Family Economic Hardship -- Loss of Parental Employment -- Lower Household Incomes -- Dependence on Private Charity and Public Assistance -- Food Insufficiency -- Crowded and Unstable Housing -- Parental Mental Health -- Stressors Affecting Parental Mental Health -- Impacts on Parental Physical Health -- Thoughts of Suicide -- Support from Family, Friends, Churches, and Mental Health Professionals -- Impacts on Child Behavior -- Impact of Family Economic Security -- Fears of Arrest by Immigration Agents or the Police -- Separation due to Parental Detention or Deportation -- Reaction to Ankle Bracelets -- Conclusion -- References -- Part IV -- Resolving the Immigration Crisis -- Security and Immigration Policy: An Analytical Framework for Reform -- Introduction -- Two American Immigration Security Traditions -- Human Security, National Security, and American Immigration -- National Security and US Immigration Policy -- Material and Military Objectives and US Immigration -- Foreign Policy Objectives and US Immigration Policy -- Domestic Security Objectives and US Immigration Policy -- Meta-Security Themes and American Immigration Policy History -- Aggressively Open Period: The "Open-Door" Federal Immigration Policy, 1776-1921 -- The Selectively Closed Era, 1921-1965: The Restrictive and Discriminatory Quota Laws -- The Cautiously Open Era, 1965-2001 -- Conclusion and Policy Recommendations -- Post-2001 US Immigration Policy -- Policy Implications -- Implications for 2013 Proposed Immigration Reform -- References -- Bibliography -- Ctrl + Alt + Del: Rebooting Immigration Policies Through Socio-technical Change -- Introduction -- Socio-technical Systems and Regimes: A Public Policy Issue -- The Socio-Technical Regime and the Immigration System -- Legacy Technology: The Immigration Socio-technical Regime of the US.

A. Subsystem 1: Government Technologies -- B. Subsystem 2: Clandestine Technologies -- C. Subsystem 3: Business Technologies -- Nation of Immigrants 2.0? Some Policy Recommendations -- Leadership for Sense-making -- Adaptive Designs -- Technological Transition is Negotiation -- Data, Not Aspirations -- A Chief Information Officer to Adapt Immigration Flows -- Risk Management Approaches -- Future Thinking Capacities for the Age of the Unthinkable -- Zero-Day Vulnerabilities and the Obsolescence Path -- References -- US Immigration, Demography, and Citizenship in a Digital Age -- Introduction -- Research Highlights on Demography, Immigration, and Citizenship -- A. The Foreign Born in the USA: Overall Numbers and Share of Population -- B. The Foreign Born in the USA: Demographic Snapshots -- C. More Recent Trends: 2000-2010 -- Age -- D. The New Geography of Immigration -- E. Other Socioeconomic Issues: High-Speed Internet Access and Language Proficiency -- 1. Internet Access -- 2. Language Proficiency -- F. Implications -- The Integration of the Foreign Born: Toward Citizenship -- Discussion: Alternative Policy Paths in a World of "Digital" Citizenship -- Toward the Future: Two Divergent Policy Paths -- A. Policy Pathway #1: Immigration and Citizenship Status Quo -- B. Policy Pathway #2: Alternative Futures for Immigration and Citizenship -- References -- The Path to US Immigration Reform -- Historical Patterns of Immigration Reform -- Recent Efforts at Immigration Reform -- Current Immigration Policies -- Legal Permanent Residents -- Temporary Workers -- Unauthorized Migration -- Problems in the Immigration System -- Unauthorized Migration -- Inflexible Ceilings -- Inadequate Mechanisms to Protect the Rights of Workers -- Is Temporary Ever Temporary? -- Complexity in the Immigration System -- Elusive Reform Prospects -- Conclusion -- References.

Conclusion.

There is a broad consensus that the United States' immigration system is broken, yet the political momentum behind the movement has not yet led to a consensus on how to fix it. This momentum has stemmed from the agreement that we have an immigration "crisis" on our hands - millions of undocumented immigrants living and working in the United States under increasingly harsh conditions, tremendous spending on border security and enforcement measures without protection of civil rights, changing voter demographics, and other pressing issues have ushered in the moment for immigration reform. This book presents research and policy recommendations from leading U.S. immigration experts and scholars, who have many valuable insights and nuanced perspectives to offer to the current debate on immigration reform. The goal of this immigration study is to disseminate knowledge and policy recommendations to scholars, government officials, the media, and the general policy community on vital issues regarding the present question of immigration reform. This book discusses the future prospects of immigration reform and delves into various details, options, and obstacles related to immigration reform. The chapters presented shed light on a number of issues that are currently being debated in the immigration bill. Some of them address the salience of the immigration issue in Latino political behavior and the impact of demographic context. Other papers hone in on the landscape of legislative initiatives addressing immigration at the state and local levels, and some authors address the implications of immigration reform for the labor market and economic climate. The book will be of interest to both scholars and policy-makers concerned with immigration in the United States.

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