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The Middle and Upper Paleolithic Archeology of the Levant and Beyond.

By: Nishiaki, Yoshihiro.
Contributor(s): Akazawa, Takeru.
Material type: TextTextSeries: eBooks on Demand.Replacement of Neanderthals by Modern Humans Ser: Publisher: Singapore : Springer, 2017Copyright date: ©2018Description: 1 online resource (222 pages).Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9789811068263.Subject(s): Paleolithic period-Middle East | Middle East-AntiquitiesGenre/Form: Electronic books.Additional physical formats: Print version:: The Middle and Upper Paleolithic Archeology of the Levant and BeyondDDC classification: 939.4 LOC classification: H1-970.9Online resources: Click here to view this ebook.
Contents:
Intro -- Preface -- Contents -- Contributors -- 1: Archeological Issues in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic of the Levant and Its Neighboring Regions -- 1.1 Introduction -- 1.2 The Archeological Issues of the RNMH in the Levant -- 1.3 The Levantine Middle and Upper Paleolithic -- 1.4 The Middle and Upper Paleolithic of the Caucasus, the Zagros, and South Asia -- 1.5 Conclusion -- References -- Part I: The Levant -- 2: An Open-Air Site at Nesher Ramla, Israel, and New Insights into Levantine Middle Paleolithic Technology and Site Use -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 The Nesher Ramla Site -- 2.2.1 General Description -- 2.2.2 Sediments and Stratigraphy -- 2.2.3 Main Archaeological Characteristics -- 2.3 The Formation and Sedimentary Development of the Nesher Ramla Sinkhole -- 2.4 Lithic Assemblages -- 2.5 Discussion -- 2.6 Conclusions -- References -- 3: A Week in the Life of the Mousterian Hunter -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 The Site of NMO -- 3.2.1 Geology and Stratigraphy -- 3.2.2 Flora and Fauna -- 3.2.3 Lithic Assemblage -- 3.2.3.1 Typology -- 3.2.3.2 Lithic Technology -- 3.3 The Significance of NMO for the Reconstruction of Human Behavior in the Late Middle Paleolithic -- 3.3.1 Hunting Large Game -- 3.3.2 Stone Tools as Cultural Markers -- 3.3.3 The Tool Arsenal and Flint Economy -- 3.3.4 Implications for Band Size and Group Behavior and Territoriality -- 3.4 Conclusion -- References -- 4: Chrono-cultural Considerations of Middle Paleolithic Occurrences at Manot Cave (Western Galilee), Israel -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 The Site and Its Setting -- 4.2.1 Area C -- 4.2.2 Area D -- 4.2.3 Dating of the Archaeological Assemblages -- 4.3 The Lithic Collection -- 4.3.1 Technology -- 4.3.2 Levallois Flakes and Points -- 4.3.3 Tools -- 4.3.4 Engraved/Incised Artifact -- 4.4 Discussion -- References.
5: Middle Palaeolithic Flint Mines in Mount Carmel: An Alternative Interpretation -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Hypothesis 1 -- 5.3 Hypothesis 2 -- 5.4 Conclusion -- References -- 6: Initial Upper Paleolithic Elements of the Keoue Cave, Lebanon -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 The 1970 Excavations of Keoue Cave -- 6.3 Emireh Points and a Chamfered Piece from Keoue Cave -- 6.3.1 Emireh Point -- 6.3.2 Emireh-like Point -- 6.3.3 Chamfered Piece (KE8-6-8) -- 6.4 Discussion -- 6.4.1 The Layer I Lithic Assemblage from Keoue Cave -- 6.4.2 Spatio-temporal Distribution of the Emireh Points and Chamfered Pieces -- 6.5 Conclusions -- References -- 7: The Ahmarian in the Context of the Earlier Upper Palaeolithic in the Near East -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 The Chronological Framework -- 7.2.1 The Ahmarian Techno-complex (Figs. 7.3, 7.4, 7.5 and 7.6) -- 7.2.2 The Ahmarian Reduction Sequence -- 7.3 Discussion -- 7.4 Summary -- References -- 8: Ahmarian or Levantine Aurignacian? Wadi Kharar 16R and New Insights into the Upper Palaeolithic Lithic Technology in the Northeastern Levant -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Upper Palaeolithic Lithic Assemblages from Wadi Kharar 16R -- 8.2.1 Site Setting -- 8.2.2 Techno-typological Descriptions -- 8.2.3 Characterization of the Wadi Kharar 16R Assemblages -- 8.3 Characterization of the Umm el Tlel Assemblages -- 8.3.1 "Ahmarian", "Levantine Aurignacian", and "Paléolithique supérieur récent" -- 8.3.2 Comparison with Wadi Kharar 16R and Ksar Akil -- 8.4 Conclusion -- References -- Part II: The Neighboring Regions of the Levant -- 9: Living on the Edge: The Earliest Modern Human Settlement of the Armenian Highlands in Aghitu-3 Cave -- 9.1 Introduction and Background -- 9.2 Stratigraphy and Dating -- 9.3 Archaeology -- 9.3.1 Lithics and Technology -- 9.3.2 Lithic Raw Materials -- 9.3.3 Organic Artifacts.
9.3.4 Fauna -- 9.4 Implications -- 9.5 Context -- 9.6 Conclusion -- References -- 10: The Middle to Upper Paleolithic Transition in the Zagros: The Appearance and Evolution of the Baradostian -- 10.1 Introduction -- 10.2 The Formation of Middle to Upper Paleolithic Research in Iran -- 10.2.1 Initial Quests for the Origin of the Earliest European Upper Paleolithic in Southwest Asia -- 10.2.2 Tendency toward "Continuity" -- 10.2.3 The Lack of Evidence for Continuity Persists -- 10.2.4 Emphasis on the Broader Identity of the Baradostian and Its Nature -- 10.2.5 The Baradostian beyond Zagros -- 10.2.6 The Problem of the "Rostamian" -- 10.3 Who Were the Makers of the Baradostian? -- 10.4 The Baradostian in the Light of New Research: Where Do We Stand? -- 10.5 Concluding Remarks -- References -- 11: Upper Palaeolithic Raw Material Economy in the Southern Zagros Mountains of Iran -- 11.1 Introduction -- 11.2 Palaeolithic Research in the Dasht-e Rostam-Basht Region -- 11.3 Lithic Raw Material Sources in the Dasht-e Rostam-Basht Region -- 11.3.1 Fahliyani Chert -- 11.3.2 Khanahmadi Chert -- 11.3.3 Other Stone Raw Materials -- 11.4 Raw Material Economy in the Ghār-e Boof Cave -- 11.4.1 AH III -- 11.4.2 AH IV -- 11.5 Comparisons -- 11.5.1 Technology -- 11.5.2 Typology -- 11.6 Raw Material Economy among the Survey Sites -- 11.7 Discussion and Conclusion -- References -- 12: Neanderthals and Modern Humans in the Indus Valley? The Middle and Late (Upper) Palaeolithic Settlement of Sindh, a Forgotten Region of the Indian Subcontinent -- 12.1 Introduction -- 12.2 The Levallois Mousterian Assemblages of Lower Sindh -- 12.3 The Middle Palaeolithic Assemblages of Upper Sindh and the Thar Desert -- 12.4 The Late (Upper) Palaeolithic Assemblages -- 12.4.1 Karachi and Its Surroundings -- 12.4.2 Jhimpir -- 12.4.3 Ongar and Daphro Hills.
12.4.4 Ranikot Fort -- 12.4.5 The Rohri Hills -- 12.5 Discussion -- References -- 13: Ecological Niche and Least-Cost Path Analyses to Estimate Optimal Migration Routes of Initial Upper Palaeolithic Populations to Eurasia -- 13.1 Introduction -- 13.2 Dataset and Methods -- 13.2.1 Overview -- 13.2.2 Archaeological Data -- 13.2.3 Palaeoenvironmental Data -- 13.2.4 Ecological Niche Models (ENM) -- 13.2.5 Least-Cost Path Analysis (LCPA) -- 13.3 Results -- 13.3.1 Niche Corridors -- 13.3.2 Contribution of Environmental Variables -- 13.3.3 Travel Cost and Least-Cost Paths -- 13.4 Discussion -- 13.5 Conclusion and Future Tasks -- References -- Index.
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Electronic Book UT Tyler Online
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H1-970.9 (Browse shelf) https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uttyler/detail.action?docID=5191344 Available EBC5191344

Intro -- Preface -- Contents -- Contributors -- 1: Archeological Issues in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic of the Levant and Its Neighboring Regions -- 1.1 Introduction -- 1.2 The Archeological Issues of the RNMH in the Levant -- 1.3 The Levantine Middle and Upper Paleolithic -- 1.4 The Middle and Upper Paleolithic of the Caucasus, the Zagros, and South Asia -- 1.5 Conclusion -- References -- Part I: The Levant -- 2: An Open-Air Site at Nesher Ramla, Israel, and New Insights into Levantine Middle Paleolithic Technology and Site Use -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 The Nesher Ramla Site -- 2.2.1 General Description -- 2.2.2 Sediments and Stratigraphy -- 2.2.3 Main Archaeological Characteristics -- 2.3 The Formation and Sedimentary Development of the Nesher Ramla Sinkhole -- 2.4 Lithic Assemblages -- 2.5 Discussion -- 2.6 Conclusions -- References -- 3: A Week in the Life of the Mousterian Hunter -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 The Site of NMO -- 3.2.1 Geology and Stratigraphy -- 3.2.2 Flora and Fauna -- 3.2.3 Lithic Assemblage -- 3.2.3.1 Typology -- 3.2.3.2 Lithic Technology -- 3.3 The Significance of NMO for the Reconstruction of Human Behavior in the Late Middle Paleolithic -- 3.3.1 Hunting Large Game -- 3.3.2 Stone Tools as Cultural Markers -- 3.3.3 The Tool Arsenal and Flint Economy -- 3.3.4 Implications for Band Size and Group Behavior and Territoriality -- 3.4 Conclusion -- References -- 4: Chrono-cultural Considerations of Middle Paleolithic Occurrences at Manot Cave (Western Galilee), Israel -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 The Site and Its Setting -- 4.2.1 Area C -- 4.2.2 Area D -- 4.2.3 Dating of the Archaeological Assemblages -- 4.3 The Lithic Collection -- 4.3.1 Technology -- 4.3.2 Levallois Flakes and Points -- 4.3.3 Tools -- 4.3.4 Engraved/Incised Artifact -- 4.4 Discussion -- References.

5: Middle Palaeolithic Flint Mines in Mount Carmel: An Alternative Interpretation -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Hypothesis 1 -- 5.3 Hypothesis 2 -- 5.4 Conclusion -- References -- 6: Initial Upper Paleolithic Elements of the Keoue Cave, Lebanon -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 The 1970 Excavations of Keoue Cave -- 6.3 Emireh Points and a Chamfered Piece from Keoue Cave -- 6.3.1 Emireh Point -- 6.3.2 Emireh-like Point -- 6.3.3 Chamfered Piece (KE8-6-8) -- 6.4 Discussion -- 6.4.1 The Layer I Lithic Assemblage from Keoue Cave -- 6.4.2 Spatio-temporal Distribution of the Emireh Points and Chamfered Pieces -- 6.5 Conclusions -- References -- 7: The Ahmarian in the Context of the Earlier Upper Palaeolithic in the Near East -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 The Chronological Framework -- 7.2.1 The Ahmarian Techno-complex (Figs. 7.3, 7.4, 7.5 and 7.6) -- 7.2.2 The Ahmarian Reduction Sequence -- 7.3 Discussion -- 7.4 Summary -- References -- 8: Ahmarian or Levantine Aurignacian? Wadi Kharar 16R and New Insights into the Upper Palaeolithic Lithic Technology in the Northeastern Levant -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Upper Palaeolithic Lithic Assemblages from Wadi Kharar 16R -- 8.2.1 Site Setting -- 8.2.2 Techno-typological Descriptions -- 8.2.3 Characterization of the Wadi Kharar 16R Assemblages -- 8.3 Characterization of the Umm el Tlel Assemblages -- 8.3.1 "Ahmarian", "Levantine Aurignacian", and "Paléolithique supérieur récent" -- 8.3.2 Comparison with Wadi Kharar 16R and Ksar Akil -- 8.4 Conclusion -- References -- Part II: The Neighboring Regions of the Levant -- 9: Living on the Edge: The Earliest Modern Human Settlement of the Armenian Highlands in Aghitu-3 Cave -- 9.1 Introduction and Background -- 9.2 Stratigraphy and Dating -- 9.3 Archaeology -- 9.3.1 Lithics and Technology -- 9.3.2 Lithic Raw Materials -- 9.3.3 Organic Artifacts.

9.3.4 Fauna -- 9.4 Implications -- 9.5 Context -- 9.6 Conclusion -- References -- 10: The Middle to Upper Paleolithic Transition in the Zagros: The Appearance and Evolution of the Baradostian -- 10.1 Introduction -- 10.2 The Formation of Middle to Upper Paleolithic Research in Iran -- 10.2.1 Initial Quests for the Origin of the Earliest European Upper Paleolithic in Southwest Asia -- 10.2.2 Tendency toward "Continuity" -- 10.2.3 The Lack of Evidence for Continuity Persists -- 10.2.4 Emphasis on the Broader Identity of the Baradostian and Its Nature -- 10.2.5 The Baradostian beyond Zagros -- 10.2.6 The Problem of the "Rostamian" -- 10.3 Who Were the Makers of the Baradostian? -- 10.4 The Baradostian in the Light of New Research: Where Do We Stand? -- 10.5 Concluding Remarks -- References -- 11: Upper Palaeolithic Raw Material Economy in the Southern Zagros Mountains of Iran -- 11.1 Introduction -- 11.2 Palaeolithic Research in the Dasht-e Rostam-Basht Region -- 11.3 Lithic Raw Material Sources in the Dasht-e Rostam-Basht Region -- 11.3.1 Fahliyani Chert -- 11.3.2 Khanahmadi Chert -- 11.3.3 Other Stone Raw Materials -- 11.4 Raw Material Economy in the Ghār-e Boof Cave -- 11.4.1 AH III -- 11.4.2 AH IV -- 11.5 Comparisons -- 11.5.1 Technology -- 11.5.2 Typology -- 11.6 Raw Material Economy among the Survey Sites -- 11.7 Discussion and Conclusion -- References -- 12: Neanderthals and Modern Humans in the Indus Valley? The Middle and Late (Upper) Palaeolithic Settlement of Sindh, a Forgotten Region of the Indian Subcontinent -- 12.1 Introduction -- 12.2 The Levallois Mousterian Assemblages of Lower Sindh -- 12.3 The Middle Palaeolithic Assemblages of Upper Sindh and the Thar Desert -- 12.4 The Late (Upper) Palaeolithic Assemblages -- 12.4.1 Karachi and Its Surroundings -- 12.4.2 Jhimpir -- 12.4.3 Ongar and Daphro Hills.

12.4.4 Ranikot Fort -- 12.4.5 The Rohri Hills -- 12.5 Discussion -- References -- 13: Ecological Niche and Least-Cost Path Analyses to Estimate Optimal Migration Routes of Initial Upper Palaeolithic Populations to Eurasia -- 13.1 Introduction -- 13.2 Dataset and Methods -- 13.2.1 Overview -- 13.2.2 Archaeological Data -- 13.2.3 Palaeoenvironmental Data -- 13.2.4 Ecological Niche Models (ENM) -- 13.2.5 Least-Cost Path Analysis (LCPA) -- 13.3 Results -- 13.3.1 Niche Corridors -- 13.3.2 Contribution of Environmental Variables -- 13.3.3 Travel Cost and Least-Cost Paths -- 13.4 Discussion -- 13.5 Conclusion and Future Tasks -- References -- Index.

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