Public International Law and Human Rights Violations by Private Military and Security Companies.

By: Torroja, HelenaMaterial type: TextTextSeries: eBooks on DemandPublisher: Cham : Springer, 2017Copyright date: ©2017Description: 1 online resource (161 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9783319660981Subject(s): Private security services | Liability for human rights violationsGenre/Form: Electronic books.Additional physical formats: Print version:: Public International Law and Human Rights Violations by Private Military and Security CompaniesDDC classification: 363.289 LOC classification: K1-7720Online resources: Click here to view this ebook.
Contents:
Intro -- Foreword -- Acknowledgments -- Contents -- Introduction -- Reference -- Afghanistan and Syria: Nonstate Actors and Their Negative Impact on Human Security -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Nonstate Armed Actors (NSAAS) in the ``New´´ Armed Conflicts -- 3 The Afghan Case: A Fragmented and Violent Environment -- 3.1 The Weakness of the Afghan State After Decades of Conflict -- 3.2 Specific Features of the Afghan Armed Conflict: Asymmetric Warfare -- 3.3 NSAAs in Afghanistan -- 3.3.1 Progovernment Groups -- 3.3.2 Militias, Paramilitaries, and Auxiliary Police Forces -- 3.3.3 PMSCs and the Afghan Public Protection Force (APPF) -- 3.4 Insurgents -- 4 The Syrian Case: Anarchic War and Sectarianism -- 4.1 Specific Features of the Syrian Armed Conflict: The War of All Against All -- 4.2 NSAAs in Syria -- 4.2.1 Militias -- 4.2.2 Mercenaries and PMSCs -- 4.2.3 Foreign Combatants/Terrorists -- 5 Implications for Human Security (HS) -- 6 Conclusions -- References -- Delimitation and Presence of PMSCs: Impact on Human Rights -- 1 Introduction -- 2 The Rise of PMSCs: Keys to Understanding the Industry´s Development -- 3 Delimitation and Presence of PMSCs -- 3.1 Home and Contracting Countries -- 3.2 Services -- 3.3 Territorial Countries -- 3.4 Operational Contexts -- 4 Impact on Human Rights -- 4.1 Main Trends in PMSCs´ Impact on Human Rights -- 4.2 Analysis by Operational Context -- 4.2.1 Occupations -- 4.2.2 Critical and Strategic Infrastructure -- 4.2.3 Logistics Convoys and/or Escorts -- 4.2.4 Extractive Industry Projects -- 4.2.5 Prisons -- 4.2.6 Borders and Immigration Control -- 4.2.7 Homeland Security -- 5 Conclusions -- References -- The Ineffectiveness of the Current Definition of a ``Mercenary´´ in International Humanitarian and Criminal Law -- 1 The Evolution of Mercenarism and the Development of International Norms 1950-2016.
2 Article 2 of the 1989 International Convention Against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries -- 2.1 Status as a Foreigner -- 2.2 Motivation -- 3 Final Considerations: The Need for a Binding International Instrument Regulating and Monitoring the Activities of PMSCs -- References -- Books, Book Chapters and Journal Articles -- Further Reading -- International and Regional Organizations -- United Nations -- Online Publications -- Other Online Sites -- Private Military and Security Companies and Human Rights -- 1 Introduction -- 2 International Human Rights Law and the Obligations of States -- 3 State Responsibility for Human Rights Violations Involving PMSC -- 4 Responsibility of PMSC and the Right to Effective Remedy and Redress -- 4.1 The Legal Liability of the Corporation or Company at the National Level -- 4.2 Criminal Liability of the Legal Person -- 4.3 Administrative Liability -- 4.4 Modes and Forms of Corporate Liability -- 4.5 Liability of Parent Companies for the Acts of Their Subsidiaries -- 4.6 Jurisdiction of National Courts Over Crimes Committed by Transnational Corporations -- 5 Final Considerations -- References -- Books and Book Chapters -- Reports -- Articles and Press Releases -- Case Law -- United Nations and Council of Europe Documents -- Guidelines, Principles and Other Soft Law Instruments -- Weblinks -- Regulations -- International Soft Law Initiatives: The Opportunities and Limitations of the Montreux Document, ICoC, and Security Operations ... -- 1 Introduction: The Choice for Soft Law -- 2 The UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights -- 2.1 Normative Reference -- 2.2 Origins -- 2.3 Protect, Respect and Remedy Framework -- 2.4 Uptake: A New Benchmark -- 3 Montreux Document on Pertinent International Legal Obligations and Good Practices for States Related to Operations of Privat...
3.1 The Two-Part Swiss Initiative -- 3.2 Why a Nonbinding Declaration and a Code of Conduct? -- 3.3 Patchy Implementation of Montreux Commitments by Participating States -- 3.4 What Role for the Montreux Document Forum? -- 3.5 Recommendations -- 4 The International Code of Conduct for Private Security Service Providers and the International Code of Conduct Association -- 4.1 Origins and Content of the ICoC -- 4.2 Governance and Oversight Through the ICoCA -- 4.3 Recent Developments in Key Procedures -- 4.4 Opportunities and Limitations -- 4.4.1 Support for the ICoC/ICoCA -- 4.4.2 Reaching Out to Other Industry Clients -- 4.4.3 Industry Best Practices -- 5 National and International Management System Standards for Security Operations -- 5.1 The Content of ANSI/ASIS PSC.1 and ISO 18788 -- 5.2 The Development of ANSI/ASIS PSC.1 and ISO 18788 -- 5.3 Not All Certification Standards Are Alike -- 6 Conclusion: Closing Gaps -- References -- Ideas on the International Minimum Standard for the Privatization, Export, and Import of Armed Coercion -- 1 Introduction: Between Recommendations for Good Practices and Conventional Regulation -- 2 The Progressive Internationalization of the Sovereign Power of Armed Coercion -- 3 The Nature of Armed Coercion as an Inherently State Function and the General Prohibition on Privatizing, Exporting, and Impo... -- 4 A General Obligation to Exercise Sovereign Competencies (Functional Sovereignty) and a General Duty of Prevention and Protec... -- 5 Specific International Obligations Arising from the General Duty of Prevention and Protection in the Event of Privatization,... -- 5.1 Regulation of Privatization Respecting the Principles of Legality, Transparency, and Proportionality and Ensuring Respect ... -- 5.2 Establishment of a Central Authority and Register as a Means of Vetting.
5.3 Establishment of a System of Licenses as a Basic Instrument for Prevention and Control -- 5.4 Attributing Responsibility to PMSCs and Their Personnel in the Event of Violations -- 6 Recognition of the General Norm of Attributing Wrongful Acts Committed by PMSCs and Their Personnel to the State -- 7 Conclusion -- References -- Books, Book Chapters and Journal Articles -- International Political Agreements -- United Nations Organization: General Assembly -- Other Documents -- Conclusions.
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Intro -- Foreword -- Acknowledgments -- Contents -- Introduction -- Reference -- Afghanistan and Syria: Nonstate Actors and Their Negative Impact on Human Security -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Nonstate Armed Actors (NSAAS) in the ``New´´ Armed Conflicts -- 3 The Afghan Case: A Fragmented and Violent Environment -- 3.1 The Weakness of the Afghan State After Decades of Conflict -- 3.2 Specific Features of the Afghan Armed Conflict: Asymmetric Warfare -- 3.3 NSAAs in Afghanistan -- 3.3.1 Progovernment Groups -- 3.3.2 Militias, Paramilitaries, and Auxiliary Police Forces -- 3.3.3 PMSCs and the Afghan Public Protection Force (APPF) -- 3.4 Insurgents -- 4 The Syrian Case: Anarchic War and Sectarianism -- 4.1 Specific Features of the Syrian Armed Conflict: The War of All Against All -- 4.2 NSAAs in Syria -- 4.2.1 Militias -- 4.2.2 Mercenaries and PMSCs -- 4.2.3 Foreign Combatants/Terrorists -- 5 Implications for Human Security (HS) -- 6 Conclusions -- References -- Delimitation and Presence of PMSCs: Impact on Human Rights -- 1 Introduction -- 2 The Rise of PMSCs: Keys to Understanding the Industry´s Development -- 3 Delimitation and Presence of PMSCs -- 3.1 Home and Contracting Countries -- 3.2 Services -- 3.3 Territorial Countries -- 3.4 Operational Contexts -- 4 Impact on Human Rights -- 4.1 Main Trends in PMSCs´ Impact on Human Rights -- 4.2 Analysis by Operational Context -- 4.2.1 Occupations -- 4.2.2 Critical and Strategic Infrastructure -- 4.2.3 Logistics Convoys and/or Escorts -- 4.2.4 Extractive Industry Projects -- 4.2.5 Prisons -- 4.2.6 Borders and Immigration Control -- 4.2.7 Homeland Security -- 5 Conclusions -- References -- The Ineffectiveness of the Current Definition of a ``Mercenary´´ in International Humanitarian and Criminal Law -- 1 The Evolution of Mercenarism and the Development of International Norms 1950-2016.

2 Article 2 of the 1989 International Convention Against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries -- 2.1 Status as a Foreigner -- 2.2 Motivation -- 3 Final Considerations: The Need for a Binding International Instrument Regulating and Monitoring the Activities of PMSCs -- References -- Books, Book Chapters and Journal Articles -- Further Reading -- International and Regional Organizations -- United Nations -- Online Publications -- Other Online Sites -- Private Military and Security Companies and Human Rights -- 1 Introduction -- 2 International Human Rights Law and the Obligations of States -- 3 State Responsibility for Human Rights Violations Involving PMSC -- 4 Responsibility of PMSC and the Right to Effective Remedy and Redress -- 4.1 The Legal Liability of the Corporation or Company at the National Level -- 4.2 Criminal Liability of the Legal Person -- 4.3 Administrative Liability -- 4.4 Modes and Forms of Corporate Liability -- 4.5 Liability of Parent Companies for the Acts of Their Subsidiaries -- 4.6 Jurisdiction of National Courts Over Crimes Committed by Transnational Corporations -- 5 Final Considerations -- References -- Books and Book Chapters -- Reports -- Articles and Press Releases -- Case Law -- United Nations and Council of Europe Documents -- Guidelines, Principles and Other Soft Law Instruments -- Weblinks -- Regulations -- International Soft Law Initiatives: The Opportunities and Limitations of the Montreux Document, ICoC, and Security Operations ... -- 1 Introduction: The Choice for Soft Law -- 2 The UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights -- 2.1 Normative Reference -- 2.2 Origins -- 2.3 Protect, Respect and Remedy Framework -- 2.4 Uptake: A New Benchmark -- 3 Montreux Document on Pertinent International Legal Obligations and Good Practices for States Related to Operations of Privat...

3.1 The Two-Part Swiss Initiative -- 3.2 Why a Nonbinding Declaration and a Code of Conduct? -- 3.3 Patchy Implementation of Montreux Commitments by Participating States -- 3.4 What Role for the Montreux Document Forum? -- 3.5 Recommendations -- 4 The International Code of Conduct for Private Security Service Providers and the International Code of Conduct Association -- 4.1 Origins and Content of the ICoC -- 4.2 Governance and Oversight Through the ICoCA -- 4.3 Recent Developments in Key Procedures -- 4.4 Opportunities and Limitations -- 4.4.1 Support for the ICoC/ICoCA -- 4.4.2 Reaching Out to Other Industry Clients -- 4.4.3 Industry Best Practices -- 5 National and International Management System Standards for Security Operations -- 5.1 The Content of ANSI/ASIS PSC.1 and ISO 18788 -- 5.2 The Development of ANSI/ASIS PSC.1 and ISO 18788 -- 5.3 Not All Certification Standards Are Alike -- 6 Conclusion: Closing Gaps -- References -- Ideas on the International Minimum Standard for the Privatization, Export, and Import of Armed Coercion -- 1 Introduction: Between Recommendations for Good Practices and Conventional Regulation -- 2 The Progressive Internationalization of the Sovereign Power of Armed Coercion -- 3 The Nature of Armed Coercion as an Inherently State Function and the General Prohibition on Privatizing, Exporting, and Impo... -- 4 A General Obligation to Exercise Sovereign Competencies (Functional Sovereignty) and a General Duty of Prevention and Protec... -- 5 Specific International Obligations Arising from the General Duty of Prevention and Protection in the Event of Privatization,... -- 5.1 Regulation of Privatization Respecting the Principles of Legality, Transparency, and Proportionality and Ensuring Respect ... -- 5.2 Establishment of a Central Authority and Register as a Means of Vetting.

5.3 Establishment of a System of Licenses as a Basic Instrument for Prevention and Control -- 5.4 Attributing Responsibility to PMSCs and Their Personnel in the Event of Violations -- 6 Recognition of the General Norm of Attributing Wrongful Acts Committed by PMSCs and Their Personnel to the State -- 7 Conclusion -- References -- Books, Book Chapters and Journal Articles -- International Political Agreements -- United Nations Organization: General Assembly -- Other Documents -- Conclusions.

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