Law, State and Inequality in Pakistan : Explaining the Rise of the Judiciary.

By: Azeem, MuhammadMaterial type: TextTextSeries: eBooks on DemandInternational Law and the Global South Ser: Publisher: Singapore : Springer, 2017Copyright date: ©2017Description: 1 online resource (289 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9789811038457Subject(s): Asia-Politics and governmentGenre/Form: Electronic books.Additional physical formats: Print version:: Law, State and Inequality in Pakistan : Explaining the Rise of the JudiciaryDDC classification: 347.549101 LOC classification: K1-7720Online resources: Click here to view this ebook.
Contents:
Intro -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- About the Author -- Abbreviations -- Law Under Modernization: Foundational Discourse (1947-1990) -- 1 The Law and Judiciary in Pakistan: Beyond a Liberal Understanding -- 1.1 The Liberal Legal Project in Pakistan -- 1.2 Theoretical Grasp of the Liberal Legal Project in Pakistan -- 1.2.1 Institutionalism and Functionalism of Liberal Understanding -- 1.2.2 Institutionalism and Functionalism in Postcolonies -- 1.2.3 Critique of Institutionalist-Functionalist Paradigm: The Issue of Change in Postcolonies -- 1.3 Legal Analysis in Relation to State and Society: Theoretical Departure from Liberal Legal Analysis -- 1.3.1 Few Comments About Methodology -- 1.4 A New Theoretical Understanding of State and Politics of Postcolonial Pakistan -- 1.4.1 'Liberal' Understanding of Law and State in Postcolonial Pakistan -- 1.4.2 From a 'Legal State' to a 'Class State' -- 1.4.3 Postcolonial Pakistani State: Factual or Theoretical Departure? -- 1.4.4 Hegemonic Class?: Redefining the Place of Centre-Periphery Relations in State Formation -- 1.4.5 Myth of Miserable Politicians vis-a-vis Military: Nature of Hegemony -- 1.4.6 Crisis of the Hegemony as the Crisis of the State -- 1.4.7 Bringing Class Struggle Back in State Formation -- References -- 2 Law in the Era of Capitalist Modernization (1947-1960s) -- 2.1 Law and State During Colonial Rule -- 2.2 Did Pakistan Inherit a Good Judicial System? -- 2.3 Modernizers Even Before Modernization -- 2.4 Class Formation Behind 'Overdeveloped' State -- 2.5 Pindi Conspiracy Case -- 2.6 Moulvi Tamizuddin Khan Case -- 2.7 The Judiciary as a Part of Juridico-Bureaucratic State Structure -- 2.8 The Significance of the Shift in Hegemonic Influence from U.K. to U.S. -- 2.9 1958-General Ayub's Coup (Dosso Case) -- 2.9.1 Revolution/Evolution or Preventing 'Revolution'.
2.9.2 Ayub 'the Modernizer' and Pakistan as the Experimental Lab -- 2.9.3 Judiciary's Modernization 'Coalition' -- 2.10 Democracy and Fundamental Rights in Political Development: A Critical Appraisal of Munir, Cornelius and Kayani CJs -- 2.10.1 Presidential System Like U.S.: Elite Democracy or Controlled Democracy? -- 2.10.2 The Cornelius 'Rights' Approach to Substitute for the Democratic Deficit? -- 2.10.3 The Nature of Politics in Rights Cases -- 2.10.4 Islam and Jirga System in Nation-Building -- 2.11 The Collapse of Modernization and Revisiting the Role of Law -- References -- 3 Law Under Bhutto's Socialism (1970-1980s) -- 3.1 Judiciary Confronting Popular Democracy: 1968-1973 -- 3.1.1 The Rising Class and National Liberation Struggles and Changing Place of Law in Political Development -- 3.1.2 Asma Jilani Case: For Democracy or Just Against a Dictator? -- 3.1.3 Zia-ur-Rahman Case: A Judicial Retreat on the Face of Popular Democracy -- 3.2 Democratic Deficit Under Bhutto and the Return of Strong Judiciary: 1973-1977 -- 3.2.1 Judicial Reaction to Bhutto's Socialism -- 3.2.2 There Is a Need of Check on the Legislature -- 3.2.3 Recall for a Presidential System -- 3.2.4 Rights Under the Bhutto Regime: Confrontation or a Substitute for Democratic Deficit -- 3.2.5 Legislature's Reaction -- 3.2.6 Liberal Rights, But No to Ethno-nationalism-The National Awami Party Case -- 3.2.7 Bhutto's Downfall: Countering the 'Suppression Explanation' -- 3.3 Juridico-Bureaucratic Cornelius Tradition Restored (1980s) -- 3.3.1 Rehabilitating the Old State Structure -- 3.3.2 Rolling Back Popular Democracy to the Extent of "Judicial Murder" of Bhutto -- 3.3.3 Zia's Constitutional Engineering: Fine Tuning of the Juridico-Bureaucratic Structure.
3.4 Revival of the Constitution of 1973 Order, 1985-RCO: A Perfection of the U.S. Type Presidential System and Islam of Cornelius Tradition (1985-1988) -- 3.5 Public Interest Litigation (PIL): A Deficit for Democracy, Dying Working Class Politics and the Emergence of Middle Class -- 3.5.1 Benazir Bhutto Cases -- 3.5.2 PIL, Islam and Judiciary's Rise -- 3.6 The Rise of Liberal and Quasi-liberal (Islamic) 'Legalism' and the Dying Working Class Struggle -- References -- Law Under Neo-Liberal Development: Rights for Democratic Deficit (1990-2008) -- 4 A Strong Judiciary in a 'Weakening State' (the 1990s) -- 4.1 Class Formations Under Neo-liberalism -- 4.1.1 The Start of Neo-liberal Globalization and the Rise of New Institutionalism -- 4.1.2 1990s: The State for the Market and not for the People -- 4.1.3 Changing State Formation and Class Formation in Pakistan -- 4.2 Judiciary in Transitional Governance (1988-1990) -- 4.2.1 Class Formation: Which is the Hegemonic Class? -- 4.2.2 The Cornelius Tradition in the Judicial Office -- 4.2.3 The Dissolution of the Benazir Bhutto Assembly Case -- 4.2.4 Did the Legislature Not Legislate or Were There Legislative Hurdles? -- 4.2.5 Political Defection: A Weak Democracy in a 'Strong State' -- 4.2.6 Appointment of Judges (1988-1990) -- 4.2.7 Not the Unconstitutional Act but Constitution Itself was a Problem -- 4.3 The First Regime of Nawaz Sharif (1990-93): Separating the Powers in a Weakening State -- 4.3.1 Contours of the 'Liberal Legal Project' in Pakistan -- 4.3.2 Separation of Power and Independence of the Judiciary: A Gap in Parliamentary Democracy -- 4.3.3 Bar's Politics: Constitutional Politics and Rising Petit Bourgeoisie -- 4.3.4 What About the Working Class in the 'Liberal' and Quasi-liberal Project?.
4.3.5 Public Interest Litigation: A New Level of the Juridico-Bureaucratic Structure in the Cornelius Tradition -- 4.3.6 Dissolution of Nawaz's Assembly (1993) -- 4.4 Benazir Bhutto's Second Term (1993-96): The Judiciary and Democracy Confrontation -- 4.4.1 Appointment of Judges: The Democratic Regime Exercising Constitutional Power? -- 4.4.2 Judges' Case: Appointment of Judges Is not the Right of a Democratic Regime -- 4.4.3 Dissolution of Assembly at the Altar of Independence of Judiciary -- 4.4.4 'State Capture': Disenchantment with the Washington Consensus and Subalterns -- 4.5 Nawaz Sharif's Second Term (1997-1999) -- 4.5.1 Independence of the Judiciary to Judicial Activism: Confronting Democracy 'Actively' -- 4.5.2 Old Juridico-Bureaucratic Structure Reacting to Democracy -- 4.5.3 Resisting a Parallel Judicial System of Special Anti-Terrorist Courts -- 4.5.4 Tools Beyond Judicial Means: From Suo Moto to Social Investigation and the Organ for 'National Integration' -- 4.5.5 Appointment of Judges: The Judiciary's Exclusive Right -- 4.5.6 Challenging the Supremacy of the Legislature -- 4.5.7 1998: Supremacy of the Parliament? -- 4.6 The Mid-1990s: Crucial Years for Public Interest Litigation -- 4.7 'Good Governance': A Class Explanation of Musharraf's Coup (October, 1999) -- References -- 5 Good Governance by Judiciary-The 2000s -- 5.1 Institutional Rearrangement: Installing the Governance Structure -- 5.2 State Formation in the Era of Good Governance -- 5.3 Judicial Decisions Under Dictatorship: Restoring the Juridico-Bureaucratic Structure -- 5.4 Class Formations Under 'Good Governance' -- 5.4.1 An Undermined Legislature -- 5.4.2 Struggle Against the Judiciary's Encroachment on the Legislative Powers -- 5.4.3 Supremacy of the Constitution as Supremacy of the Judiciary -- 5.4.4 Opposition: Correcting the Judiciary Before Democracy.
5.4.5 The Liberal Legal Project -- 5.5 Judiciary as Custodian of Global Modernity Under 'Good Governance': Steering the Juridico-Bureaucratic Structure (2000-2006) -- 5.5.1 Public Interest Litigation Until 2006: A Comfortable Substitute for Democracy -- 5.5.2 2006: The Judiciary's Own Consciousness of Its Linear Development and Weaknesses in Leading Global Modernity -- 5.6 Lawyers' Movement: From Supremacy of the Constitution to Supremacy of the 'Rule of Law' -- 5.6.1 Emergency Against Judicial Activism and Public Interest Litigation -- 5.6.2 Rule of Law or Politics: Class Formation and the Lawyers' Movement -- 5.6.3 Lawyers' Movement: A Political Movement for a 'Non-Political' Judiciary? -- 5.7 After the Lawyers' Movement: Reclaiming Parliamentary Sovereignty -- 5.7.1 From Parliamentary Democracy to Constitutional Democracy -- 5.8 'Loud' Rights in a 'Shallow Democracy': A Structural Analysis -- 5.8.1 Bonded Labour -- 5.8.2 Gender and Public Interest Litigation -- 5.8.3 Public Interest Litigation and the Environment -- 5.8.4 Conclusion -- References -- 6 Some Theoretical Implications -- 6.1 A Departure from a 'Liberal' Analysis About Pakistan -- 6.2 Theoretical Implications for Law and Development, Looking at the Work of Douglas North, Brian Tamanaha, David Trubek -- 6.2.1 Douglas North -- 6.2.2 Brian Tamanaha -- 6.2.3 David Trubek -- 6.3 Post-Development, TWAIL and Critical Legal Studies -- 6.4 Social Change Beyond Law: Final Reflections -- References.
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Intro -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- About the Author -- Abbreviations -- Law Under Modernization: Foundational Discourse (1947-1990) -- 1 The Law and Judiciary in Pakistan: Beyond a Liberal Understanding -- 1.1 The Liberal Legal Project in Pakistan -- 1.2 Theoretical Grasp of the Liberal Legal Project in Pakistan -- 1.2.1 Institutionalism and Functionalism of Liberal Understanding -- 1.2.2 Institutionalism and Functionalism in Postcolonies -- 1.2.3 Critique of Institutionalist-Functionalist Paradigm: The Issue of Change in Postcolonies -- 1.3 Legal Analysis in Relation to State and Society: Theoretical Departure from Liberal Legal Analysis -- 1.3.1 Few Comments About Methodology -- 1.4 A New Theoretical Understanding of State and Politics of Postcolonial Pakistan -- 1.4.1 'Liberal' Understanding of Law and State in Postcolonial Pakistan -- 1.4.2 From a 'Legal State' to a 'Class State' -- 1.4.3 Postcolonial Pakistani State: Factual or Theoretical Departure? -- 1.4.4 Hegemonic Class?: Redefining the Place of Centre-Periphery Relations in State Formation -- 1.4.5 Myth of Miserable Politicians vis-a-vis Military: Nature of Hegemony -- 1.4.6 Crisis of the Hegemony as the Crisis of the State -- 1.4.7 Bringing Class Struggle Back in State Formation -- References -- 2 Law in the Era of Capitalist Modernization (1947-1960s) -- 2.1 Law and State During Colonial Rule -- 2.2 Did Pakistan Inherit a Good Judicial System? -- 2.3 Modernizers Even Before Modernization -- 2.4 Class Formation Behind 'Overdeveloped' State -- 2.5 Pindi Conspiracy Case -- 2.6 Moulvi Tamizuddin Khan Case -- 2.7 The Judiciary as a Part of Juridico-Bureaucratic State Structure -- 2.8 The Significance of the Shift in Hegemonic Influence from U.K. to U.S. -- 2.9 1958-General Ayub's Coup (Dosso Case) -- 2.9.1 Revolution/Evolution or Preventing 'Revolution'.

2.9.2 Ayub 'the Modernizer' and Pakistan as the Experimental Lab -- 2.9.3 Judiciary's Modernization 'Coalition' -- 2.10 Democracy and Fundamental Rights in Political Development: A Critical Appraisal of Munir, Cornelius and Kayani CJs -- 2.10.1 Presidential System Like U.S.: Elite Democracy or Controlled Democracy? -- 2.10.2 The Cornelius 'Rights' Approach to Substitute for the Democratic Deficit? -- 2.10.3 The Nature of Politics in Rights Cases -- 2.10.4 Islam and Jirga System in Nation-Building -- 2.11 The Collapse of Modernization and Revisiting the Role of Law -- References -- 3 Law Under Bhutto's Socialism (1970-1980s) -- 3.1 Judiciary Confronting Popular Democracy: 1968-1973 -- 3.1.1 The Rising Class and National Liberation Struggles and Changing Place of Law in Political Development -- 3.1.2 Asma Jilani Case: For Democracy or Just Against a Dictator? -- 3.1.3 Zia-ur-Rahman Case: A Judicial Retreat on the Face of Popular Democracy -- 3.2 Democratic Deficit Under Bhutto and the Return of Strong Judiciary: 1973-1977 -- 3.2.1 Judicial Reaction to Bhutto's Socialism -- 3.2.2 There Is a Need of Check on the Legislature -- 3.2.3 Recall for a Presidential System -- 3.2.4 Rights Under the Bhutto Regime: Confrontation or a Substitute for Democratic Deficit -- 3.2.5 Legislature's Reaction -- 3.2.6 Liberal Rights, But No to Ethno-nationalism-The National Awami Party Case -- 3.2.7 Bhutto's Downfall: Countering the 'Suppression Explanation' -- 3.3 Juridico-Bureaucratic Cornelius Tradition Restored (1980s) -- 3.3.1 Rehabilitating the Old State Structure -- 3.3.2 Rolling Back Popular Democracy to the Extent of "Judicial Murder" of Bhutto -- 3.3.3 Zia's Constitutional Engineering: Fine Tuning of the Juridico-Bureaucratic Structure.

3.4 Revival of the Constitution of 1973 Order, 1985-RCO: A Perfection of the U.S. Type Presidential System and Islam of Cornelius Tradition (1985-1988) -- 3.5 Public Interest Litigation (PIL): A Deficit for Democracy, Dying Working Class Politics and the Emergence of Middle Class -- 3.5.1 Benazir Bhutto Cases -- 3.5.2 PIL, Islam and Judiciary's Rise -- 3.6 The Rise of Liberal and Quasi-liberal (Islamic) 'Legalism' and the Dying Working Class Struggle -- References -- Law Under Neo-Liberal Development: Rights for Democratic Deficit (1990-2008) -- 4 A Strong Judiciary in a 'Weakening State' (the 1990s) -- 4.1 Class Formations Under Neo-liberalism -- 4.1.1 The Start of Neo-liberal Globalization and the Rise of New Institutionalism -- 4.1.2 1990s: The State for the Market and not for the People -- 4.1.3 Changing State Formation and Class Formation in Pakistan -- 4.2 Judiciary in Transitional Governance (1988-1990) -- 4.2.1 Class Formation: Which is the Hegemonic Class? -- 4.2.2 The Cornelius Tradition in the Judicial Office -- 4.2.3 The Dissolution of the Benazir Bhutto Assembly Case -- 4.2.4 Did the Legislature Not Legislate or Were There Legislative Hurdles? -- 4.2.5 Political Defection: A Weak Democracy in a 'Strong State' -- 4.2.6 Appointment of Judges (1988-1990) -- 4.2.7 Not the Unconstitutional Act but Constitution Itself was a Problem -- 4.3 The First Regime of Nawaz Sharif (1990-93): Separating the Powers in a Weakening State -- 4.3.1 Contours of the 'Liberal Legal Project' in Pakistan -- 4.3.2 Separation of Power and Independence of the Judiciary: A Gap in Parliamentary Democracy -- 4.3.3 Bar's Politics: Constitutional Politics and Rising Petit Bourgeoisie -- 4.3.4 What About the Working Class in the 'Liberal' and Quasi-liberal Project?.

4.3.5 Public Interest Litigation: A New Level of the Juridico-Bureaucratic Structure in the Cornelius Tradition -- 4.3.6 Dissolution of Nawaz's Assembly (1993) -- 4.4 Benazir Bhutto's Second Term (1993-96): The Judiciary and Democracy Confrontation -- 4.4.1 Appointment of Judges: The Democratic Regime Exercising Constitutional Power? -- 4.4.2 Judges' Case: Appointment of Judges Is not the Right of a Democratic Regime -- 4.4.3 Dissolution of Assembly at the Altar of Independence of Judiciary -- 4.4.4 'State Capture': Disenchantment with the Washington Consensus and Subalterns -- 4.5 Nawaz Sharif's Second Term (1997-1999) -- 4.5.1 Independence of the Judiciary to Judicial Activism: Confronting Democracy 'Actively' -- 4.5.2 Old Juridico-Bureaucratic Structure Reacting to Democracy -- 4.5.3 Resisting a Parallel Judicial System of Special Anti-Terrorist Courts -- 4.5.4 Tools Beyond Judicial Means: From Suo Moto to Social Investigation and the Organ for 'National Integration' -- 4.5.5 Appointment of Judges: The Judiciary's Exclusive Right -- 4.5.6 Challenging the Supremacy of the Legislature -- 4.5.7 1998: Supremacy of the Parliament? -- 4.6 The Mid-1990s: Crucial Years for Public Interest Litigation -- 4.7 'Good Governance': A Class Explanation of Musharraf's Coup (October, 1999) -- References -- 5 Good Governance by Judiciary-The 2000s -- 5.1 Institutional Rearrangement: Installing the Governance Structure -- 5.2 State Formation in the Era of Good Governance -- 5.3 Judicial Decisions Under Dictatorship: Restoring the Juridico-Bureaucratic Structure -- 5.4 Class Formations Under 'Good Governance' -- 5.4.1 An Undermined Legislature -- 5.4.2 Struggle Against the Judiciary's Encroachment on the Legislative Powers -- 5.4.3 Supremacy of the Constitution as Supremacy of the Judiciary -- 5.4.4 Opposition: Correcting the Judiciary Before Democracy.

5.4.5 The Liberal Legal Project -- 5.5 Judiciary as Custodian of Global Modernity Under 'Good Governance': Steering the Juridico-Bureaucratic Structure (2000-2006) -- 5.5.1 Public Interest Litigation Until 2006: A Comfortable Substitute for Democracy -- 5.5.2 2006: The Judiciary's Own Consciousness of Its Linear Development and Weaknesses in Leading Global Modernity -- 5.6 Lawyers' Movement: From Supremacy of the Constitution to Supremacy of the 'Rule of Law' -- 5.6.1 Emergency Against Judicial Activism and Public Interest Litigation -- 5.6.2 Rule of Law or Politics: Class Formation and the Lawyers' Movement -- 5.6.3 Lawyers' Movement: A Political Movement for a 'Non-Political' Judiciary? -- 5.7 After the Lawyers' Movement: Reclaiming Parliamentary Sovereignty -- 5.7.1 From Parliamentary Democracy to Constitutional Democracy -- 5.8 'Loud' Rights in a 'Shallow Democracy': A Structural Analysis -- 5.8.1 Bonded Labour -- 5.8.2 Gender and Public Interest Litigation -- 5.8.3 Public Interest Litigation and the Environment -- 5.8.4 Conclusion -- References -- 6 Some Theoretical Implications -- 6.1 A Departure from a 'Liberal' Analysis About Pakistan -- 6.2 Theoretical Implications for Law and Development, Looking at the Work of Douglas North, Brian Tamanaha, David Trubek -- 6.2.1 Douglas North -- 6.2.2 Brian Tamanaha -- 6.2.3 David Trubek -- 6.3 Post-Development, TWAIL and Critical Legal Studies -- 6.4 Social Change Beyond Law: Final Reflections -- References.

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