Fluid Injection in Deformable Geological Formations : Energy Related Issues.

By: Loret, BenjaminMaterial type: TextTextSeries: eBooks on DemandPublisher: Cham : Springer, 2018Copyright date: ©2019Description: 1 online resource (774 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9783319942179Subject(s): Formations (Geology) | Engineering geologyGenre/Form: Electronic books.Additional physical formats: Print version:: Fluid Injection in Deformable Geological Formations : Energy Related IssuesDDC classification: 551.41 LOC classification: QC71.82-73.8Online resources: Click here to view this ebook.
Contents:
Intro -- Preface -- References -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- 1 Energy Production Landscape and Fluid Injections in Energy-Related Activities -- 1.1 Energy Production: The Landscape -- 1.1.1 Energy-Related Units -- 1.1.2 Resources Versus Reserves -- 1.1.3 Fossil Resources and Reserves: Oil, Gas, and Coal -- 1.2 Conventional and Unconventional Resources -- 1.3 Fluid Injections and Withdrawals, Subsidence and Uplift -- 1.4 Carbon Dioxide: Environmental Concerns -- 1.4.1 Global Warming Potential, Greenhouse Gases -- 1.4.2 CO2 Geological Sequestration -- 1.4.3 Investments in CCS and Perspective -- 1.5 Methane, Natural Gas, Gas Hydrates -- References -- 2 Deformable Porous Medium Saturated by Three Immiscible Fluids -- 2.1 Wettability and Surface Tension in Two- and Three-Fluid Phase Porous Media -- 2.1.1 Wettability, Contact Angle, and Spreading Coefficient -- 2.1.2 The Leverett Concept -- 2.1.3 Types of Wettability -- 2.1.4 Parameters Affecting Surface Tension -- 2.1.5 Amott-Harvey Wetting Index -- 2.1.6 Oil Recovery -- 2.2 Relative Permeabilities for Two-Fluid Phase Flows -- 2.2.1 Measurement of Relative Permeabilities by Steady-State Methods -- 2.2.2 Influence of the Saturation Path on Relative Permeabilities -- 2.2.3 Influence of Wettability on Relative Permeabilities -- 2.2.4 From Capillary Pressure to Relative Permeabilities: The Corey-Burdine Relation -- 2.2.5 Capillary Pressure and Relative Permeabilities for a Tight Rock -- 2.3 Three-Fluid Phase Porous Medium: Representation of the Saturations -- 2.3.1 Definition of the Saturations -- 2.3.2 From the 3D Space (Sw,So,Sg) to the (X,Y) Plane and Conversely -- 2.3.3 Definition of the Effective Saturations -- 2.4 Relative Permeabilities for a Three-Fluid Phase Porous Medium -- 2.4.1 A Short Review of Laboratory Tests for Three-Fluid Phase Porous Media.
2.4.2 Measurement of Relative Permeabilities by Core Flooding Experiments -- 2.4.3 Evolution of the Residual Saturations -- 2.4.4 Weighting Two-Fluid Phase Contributions -- 2.4.5 Weighting Based on the Brooks-Corey Permeability Relations -- 2.4.6 Other Three-Fluid Phase Relative Permeability Models -- 2.5 Capillary Pressures for Two- and Three-Fluid Phases -- 2.5.1 Models for a Two-Fluid Phase Porous Medium -- 2.5.2 Three-Fluid Phase Capillary Pressures -- 2.5.3 Saturation Paths in a Ternary Diagram -- 2.6 Three-Fluid Phase Flows: Regimes of the Field Equations -- 2.6.1 Regimes of the Field Equations and Perturbations: Motivation -- 2.6.2 Fractional Flow Formulation for Incompressible Fluids -- 2.6.3 Balances of Mass of the Three Fluids -- 2.6.4 Regimes of the Saturation Equations Neglecting Capillary Forces -- 2.6.5 Regimes of the Saturation Equations: Ternary Plots -- 2.6.6 Restoring Hyperbolicity in the Absence of Capillary Forces -- 2.6.7 Perturbation Analysis Accounting for Capillary Forces -- 2.6.8 Consistency of the Analysis with the No Capillary Force Limit Case -- 2.6.9 Instability Conditions: Total Flux and Intrinsic Permeability are Not Involved -- 2.6.10 Instability Conditions Due to Flow Versus Capillary Forces -- 2.6.11 Vanishing Permeability Matrix or Vanishing Total Flux as a Limit Case -- 2.6.12 Perturbation Analysis of the Flow and Capillary Forces: Ternary Plots -- 2.6.13 Regimes for the Pressure and Saturation Equations: The Two-Fluid Phase Mixture -- 2.6.14 Fractional Flow Formulation for Compressible Fluids -- 2.6.15 Fingering, Relative Permeability and Capillarity -- 2.6.16 Fractional Flow, Mobility Ratio, Displacement Efficiency -- References -- 3 Computational Issues in Deformable Porous Media -- 3.1 Field and Thermomechanical Constitutive Equations -- 3.1.1 Mass Balance and Constitutive Equations of the Fluids.
3.1.2 Mass Balance and Constitutive Equations of the Solid Grains -- 3.1.3 Momentum Balance and Constitutive Equations for the Solid Skeleton -- 3.1.4 Constitutive Equations of Fluid and Heat Transport -- 3.1.5 Energy Equation for the Mixture -- 3.2 Enhanced Recovery Techniques -- 3.2.1 Conventional and Unconventional Oil Fields -- 3.2.2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes (EOR) for Heavy Oils -- 3.3 Oil Sands: Microstructure and Physical Properties -- 3.3.1 Composition and Microstructure of Oil Sands -- 3.3.2 Mechanical Properties -- 3.3.3 Issues Pertaining to Hydraulic Conductivity and Viscosity -- 3.4 Boundary Value Problems and Solution Procedures -- 3.4.1 Initial Conditions in the Steam Chamber for Liquid Water and Steam -- 3.4.2 Short Review of Simulations of SAGD Processes -- 3.4.3 Stimulation and Boundary Conditions in SAGD Simulations -- 3.4.4 Co-, Countercurrent Imbibition Tests, Convective Boundary Conditions -- 3.5 Mass Conservation: The Finite Volume Method -- 3.5.1 Richards Equation of Fluid Flow Through Unsaturated Rigid Porous Media -- 3.5.2 1D Two-Fluid Phase Flows in a Rigid Porous Medium -- 3.6 Mass Conservation: Discontinuous Galerkin Methods -- 3.6.1 The Raviart-Thomas Basis Vectors -- 3.6.2 Fluid Flow Through a Rigid Porous Medium -- 3.6.3 The Mixed-Hybrid Method -- 3.6.4 The Mixed Method -- 3.6.5 Application to Immiscible Fluid Flow with Capillary Effects -- 3.7 Convection Issues and Accuracy at Small Time Steps -- 3.7.1 Stabilization by a Reactive Term -- 3.7.2 Stabilized Weak Form for the Energy Equation -- 3.7.3 Stabilization of the Balance of Mass of a Fluid Constituent -- 3.7.4 The Whole Set of Equations: Momentum, Regularized Mass, and Energy -- 3.7.5 Matrix Form in 1D -- 3.7.6 The Stabilization Coefficients τ0>0 and τ1<0 -- 3.7.7 Derivatives of the Shape Functions of the Q4 and Q8 -- References.
4 Thermodynamics, Thermomechanics, and Transport of Water, Carbon Dioxide, and Oil -- 4.1 Thermophysical Properties of the Water Substance -- 4.1.1 Analytical Approximations of the Lines of Phase Changes -- 4.1.2 Thermodynamic Potentials and Thermomechanical Properties of Water -- 4.1.3 Transport Properties of Water -- 4.1.4 Liquid-Steam Equilibrium Curve over a Flat Surface -- 4.1.5 Liquid-Steam Equilibrium: Ideal Gas and Simplified Water Properties -- 4.1.6 Kinetic Equations of Vaporization and Steam Condensation -- 4.1.7 Solubilities of Methane and Carbon Dioxide in Pure Water -- 4.2 Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide -- 4.2.1 Analytical Approximations of the Phase Change Lines of Carbon Dioxide -- 4.2.2 Reference State for Carbon Dioxide -- 4.2.3 Thermodynamic Potentials and Other Entities of Interest -- 4.2.4 Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide -- 4.2.5 Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Dioxide -- 4.3 Thermophysical Properties of Oil -- 4.3.1 Thermodynamic Potentials of Oil -- 4.3.2 Properties of Gas-Free Heavy Oils from Data -- 4.3.3 Thermomechanical Properties of Live Oil -- References -- 5 Methane Hydrates: Mechanical Properties and Recovery Issues -- 5.1 Overview -- 5.2 Thermodynamic Properties -- 5.2.1 Molecular Level, Cages -- 5.2.2 Phase Diagrams, Equilibrium Curves of CH4 and CO2 Hydrates -- 5.2.3 Phase Diagrams: Theoretical Derivation -- 5.2.4 Phase Diagrams: Hydrates of Mixtures of Methane and Carbon Dioxide -- 5.3 Constituents and Phases in a Mixture Context -- 5.4 Thermal Properties -- 5.4.1 Thermal Conductivities -- 5.4.2 Heat Capacities -- 5.4.3 Latent Heat of Dissociation/Formation -- 5.4.4 Energy Equation -- 5.4.5 Solubility of Methane in Water in the Presence of Hydrates and of NaCl -- 5.5 Dissociation and Formation -- 5.5.1 Kinetics of Dissociation -- 5.5.2 Formation and Dissociation Over Distinct Specific Areas.
5.5.3 Hydrate Stability Zone and Actual Hydrate Zone -- 5.5.4 Self-Preservation -- 5.6 Constitutive Equations of Fluid Transport -- 5.6.1 Intrinsic Permeability -- 5.6.2 Relative Permeabilities -- 5.7 Mechanical Properties -- 5.7.1 Mechanical Laboratory Tests on Artificial HBSs -- 5.7.2 Solid Constituents, Particle Size, and Specific Area -- 5.7.3 Mechanical Constitutive Equations -- 5.7.4 Geomechanical Issues -- 5.8 Production Issues -- 5.8.1 Typical Boundary Value Problems -- 5.8.2 Depressurization Method -- 5.8.3 Thermal Stimulation -- 5.8.4 Use of Chemical Inhibitors -- 5.8.5 Gas Replacement and CO2 Sequestration -- References -- 6 Sand Production During Hydrate Dissociation and Erosion of Earth Dams: Constitutive and Field Equations -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.1.1 Particle Erosion from Soils: Terminology -- 6.1.2 Grain Size Distribution Curves -- 6.2 Constituents and Phases in a Mixture Context -- 6.2.1 Partition of Constituents -- 6.2.2 Notation for Masses, Volumes, Stresses, and Thermodynamic Entities -- 6.3 Balance of Mass of Constituents -- 6.4 Mechanical Constitutive Equations -- 6.4.1 Constitutive Equations for the Solid Grains -- 6.4.2 Constitutive Equations for the Solid Skeleton -- 6.4.3 Mechanical Constitutive Equations for Water and Free Gas -- 6.4.4 Mechanical Constitutive Equations for Hydrates -- 6.5 Constitutive Equations of Fluid and Heat Transport -- 6.5.1 Constitutive Equation of Heat Transport -- 6.5.2 Constitutive Equations of Fluid Transport -- 6.5.3 Constitutive Equations of Diffusion of the Solid Grains in the Pore Space -- 6.6 Constitutive Equations of Hydrate Dissociation -- 6.7 Constitutive Equations of Erosion of the Solid -- 6.7.1 The Erosion Criterion -- 6.7.2 The Rate of Eroded Mass -- 6.7.3 Changes of the Mechanical and Transport Properties Due to Erosion.
6.8 Transportation, Deposition, and Re-suspension of Eroded Grains.
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Intro -- Preface -- References -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- 1 Energy Production Landscape and Fluid Injections in Energy-Related Activities -- 1.1 Energy Production: The Landscape -- 1.1.1 Energy-Related Units -- 1.1.2 Resources Versus Reserves -- 1.1.3 Fossil Resources and Reserves: Oil, Gas, and Coal -- 1.2 Conventional and Unconventional Resources -- 1.3 Fluid Injections and Withdrawals, Subsidence and Uplift -- 1.4 Carbon Dioxide: Environmental Concerns -- 1.4.1 Global Warming Potential, Greenhouse Gases -- 1.4.2 CO2 Geological Sequestration -- 1.4.3 Investments in CCS and Perspective -- 1.5 Methane, Natural Gas, Gas Hydrates -- References -- 2 Deformable Porous Medium Saturated by Three Immiscible Fluids -- 2.1 Wettability and Surface Tension in Two- and Three-Fluid Phase Porous Media -- 2.1.1 Wettability, Contact Angle, and Spreading Coefficient -- 2.1.2 The Leverett Concept -- 2.1.3 Types of Wettability -- 2.1.4 Parameters Affecting Surface Tension -- 2.1.5 Amott-Harvey Wetting Index -- 2.1.6 Oil Recovery -- 2.2 Relative Permeabilities for Two-Fluid Phase Flows -- 2.2.1 Measurement of Relative Permeabilities by Steady-State Methods -- 2.2.2 Influence of the Saturation Path on Relative Permeabilities -- 2.2.3 Influence of Wettability on Relative Permeabilities -- 2.2.4 From Capillary Pressure to Relative Permeabilities: The Corey-Burdine Relation -- 2.2.5 Capillary Pressure and Relative Permeabilities for a Tight Rock -- 2.3 Three-Fluid Phase Porous Medium: Representation of the Saturations -- 2.3.1 Definition of the Saturations -- 2.3.2 From the 3D Space (Sw,So,Sg) to the (X,Y) Plane and Conversely -- 2.3.3 Definition of the Effective Saturations -- 2.4 Relative Permeabilities for a Three-Fluid Phase Porous Medium -- 2.4.1 A Short Review of Laboratory Tests for Three-Fluid Phase Porous Media.

2.4.2 Measurement of Relative Permeabilities by Core Flooding Experiments -- 2.4.3 Evolution of the Residual Saturations -- 2.4.4 Weighting Two-Fluid Phase Contributions -- 2.4.5 Weighting Based on the Brooks-Corey Permeability Relations -- 2.4.6 Other Three-Fluid Phase Relative Permeability Models -- 2.5 Capillary Pressures for Two- and Three-Fluid Phases -- 2.5.1 Models for a Two-Fluid Phase Porous Medium -- 2.5.2 Three-Fluid Phase Capillary Pressures -- 2.5.3 Saturation Paths in a Ternary Diagram -- 2.6 Three-Fluid Phase Flows: Regimes of the Field Equations -- 2.6.1 Regimes of the Field Equations and Perturbations: Motivation -- 2.6.2 Fractional Flow Formulation for Incompressible Fluids -- 2.6.3 Balances of Mass of the Three Fluids -- 2.6.4 Regimes of the Saturation Equations Neglecting Capillary Forces -- 2.6.5 Regimes of the Saturation Equations: Ternary Plots -- 2.6.6 Restoring Hyperbolicity in the Absence of Capillary Forces -- 2.6.7 Perturbation Analysis Accounting for Capillary Forces -- 2.6.8 Consistency of the Analysis with the No Capillary Force Limit Case -- 2.6.9 Instability Conditions: Total Flux and Intrinsic Permeability are Not Involved -- 2.6.10 Instability Conditions Due to Flow Versus Capillary Forces -- 2.6.11 Vanishing Permeability Matrix or Vanishing Total Flux as a Limit Case -- 2.6.12 Perturbation Analysis of the Flow and Capillary Forces: Ternary Plots -- 2.6.13 Regimes for the Pressure and Saturation Equations: The Two-Fluid Phase Mixture -- 2.6.14 Fractional Flow Formulation for Compressible Fluids -- 2.6.15 Fingering, Relative Permeability and Capillarity -- 2.6.16 Fractional Flow, Mobility Ratio, Displacement Efficiency -- References -- 3 Computational Issues in Deformable Porous Media -- 3.1 Field and Thermomechanical Constitutive Equations -- 3.1.1 Mass Balance and Constitutive Equations of the Fluids.

3.1.2 Mass Balance and Constitutive Equations of the Solid Grains -- 3.1.3 Momentum Balance and Constitutive Equations for the Solid Skeleton -- 3.1.4 Constitutive Equations of Fluid and Heat Transport -- 3.1.5 Energy Equation for the Mixture -- 3.2 Enhanced Recovery Techniques -- 3.2.1 Conventional and Unconventional Oil Fields -- 3.2.2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes (EOR) for Heavy Oils -- 3.3 Oil Sands: Microstructure and Physical Properties -- 3.3.1 Composition and Microstructure of Oil Sands -- 3.3.2 Mechanical Properties -- 3.3.3 Issues Pertaining to Hydraulic Conductivity and Viscosity -- 3.4 Boundary Value Problems and Solution Procedures -- 3.4.1 Initial Conditions in the Steam Chamber for Liquid Water and Steam -- 3.4.2 Short Review of Simulations of SAGD Processes -- 3.4.3 Stimulation and Boundary Conditions in SAGD Simulations -- 3.4.4 Co-, Countercurrent Imbibition Tests, Convective Boundary Conditions -- 3.5 Mass Conservation: The Finite Volume Method -- 3.5.1 Richards Equation of Fluid Flow Through Unsaturated Rigid Porous Media -- 3.5.2 1D Two-Fluid Phase Flows in a Rigid Porous Medium -- 3.6 Mass Conservation: Discontinuous Galerkin Methods -- 3.6.1 The Raviart-Thomas Basis Vectors -- 3.6.2 Fluid Flow Through a Rigid Porous Medium -- 3.6.3 The Mixed-Hybrid Method -- 3.6.4 The Mixed Method -- 3.6.5 Application to Immiscible Fluid Flow with Capillary Effects -- 3.7 Convection Issues and Accuracy at Small Time Steps -- 3.7.1 Stabilization by a Reactive Term -- 3.7.2 Stabilized Weak Form for the Energy Equation -- 3.7.3 Stabilization of the Balance of Mass of a Fluid Constituent -- 3.7.4 The Whole Set of Equations: Momentum, Regularized Mass, and Energy -- 3.7.5 Matrix Form in 1D -- 3.7.6 The Stabilization Coefficients τ0>0 and τ1<0 -- 3.7.7 Derivatives of the Shape Functions of the Q4 and Q8 -- References.

4 Thermodynamics, Thermomechanics, and Transport of Water, Carbon Dioxide, and Oil -- 4.1 Thermophysical Properties of the Water Substance -- 4.1.1 Analytical Approximations of the Lines of Phase Changes -- 4.1.2 Thermodynamic Potentials and Thermomechanical Properties of Water -- 4.1.3 Transport Properties of Water -- 4.1.4 Liquid-Steam Equilibrium Curve over a Flat Surface -- 4.1.5 Liquid-Steam Equilibrium: Ideal Gas and Simplified Water Properties -- 4.1.6 Kinetic Equations of Vaporization and Steam Condensation -- 4.1.7 Solubilities of Methane and Carbon Dioxide in Pure Water -- 4.2 Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide -- 4.2.1 Analytical Approximations of the Phase Change Lines of Carbon Dioxide -- 4.2.2 Reference State for Carbon Dioxide -- 4.2.3 Thermodynamic Potentials and Other Entities of Interest -- 4.2.4 Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide -- 4.2.5 Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Dioxide -- 4.3 Thermophysical Properties of Oil -- 4.3.1 Thermodynamic Potentials of Oil -- 4.3.2 Properties of Gas-Free Heavy Oils from Data -- 4.3.3 Thermomechanical Properties of Live Oil -- References -- 5 Methane Hydrates: Mechanical Properties and Recovery Issues -- 5.1 Overview -- 5.2 Thermodynamic Properties -- 5.2.1 Molecular Level, Cages -- 5.2.2 Phase Diagrams, Equilibrium Curves of CH4 and CO2 Hydrates -- 5.2.3 Phase Diagrams: Theoretical Derivation -- 5.2.4 Phase Diagrams: Hydrates of Mixtures of Methane and Carbon Dioxide -- 5.3 Constituents and Phases in a Mixture Context -- 5.4 Thermal Properties -- 5.4.1 Thermal Conductivities -- 5.4.2 Heat Capacities -- 5.4.3 Latent Heat of Dissociation/Formation -- 5.4.4 Energy Equation -- 5.4.5 Solubility of Methane in Water in the Presence of Hydrates and of NaCl -- 5.5 Dissociation and Formation -- 5.5.1 Kinetics of Dissociation -- 5.5.2 Formation and Dissociation Over Distinct Specific Areas.

5.5.3 Hydrate Stability Zone and Actual Hydrate Zone -- 5.5.4 Self-Preservation -- 5.6 Constitutive Equations of Fluid Transport -- 5.6.1 Intrinsic Permeability -- 5.6.2 Relative Permeabilities -- 5.7 Mechanical Properties -- 5.7.1 Mechanical Laboratory Tests on Artificial HBSs -- 5.7.2 Solid Constituents, Particle Size, and Specific Area -- 5.7.3 Mechanical Constitutive Equations -- 5.7.4 Geomechanical Issues -- 5.8 Production Issues -- 5.8.1 Typical Boundary Value Problems -- 5.8.2 Depressurization Method -- 5.8.3 Thermal Stimulation -- 5.8.4 Use of Chemical Inhibitors -- 5.8.5 Gas Replacement and CO2 Sequestration -- References -- 6 Sand Production During Hydrate Dissociation and Erosion of Earth Dams: Constitutive and Field Equations -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.1.1 Particle Erosion from Soils: Terminology -- 6.1.2 Grain Size Distribution Curves -- 6.2 Constituents and Phases in a Mixture Context -- 6.2.1 Partition of Constituents -- 6.2.2 Notation for Masses, Volumes, Stresses, and Thermodynamic Entities -- 6.3 Balance of Mass of Constituents -- 6.4 Mechanical Constitutive Equations -- 6.4.1 Constitutive Equations for the Solid Grains -- 6.4.2 Constitutive Equations for the Solid Skeleton -- 6.4.3 Mechanical Constitutive Equations for Water and Free Gas -- 6.4.4 Mechanical Constitutive Equations for Hydrates -- 6.5 Constitutive Equations of Fluid and Heat Transport -- 6.5.1 Constitutive Equation of Heat Transport -- 6.5.2 Constitutive Equations of Fluid Transport -- 6.5.3 Constitutive Equations of Diffusion of the Solid Grains in the Pore Space -- 6.6 Constitutive Equations of Hydrate Dissociation -- 6.7 Constitutive Equations of Erosion of the Solid -- 6.7.1 The Erosion Criterion -- 6.7.2 The Rate of Eroded Mass -- 6.7.3 Changes of the Mechanical and Transport Properties Due to Erosion.

6.8 Transportation, Deposition, and Re-suspension of Eroded Grains.

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