Public Service Broadcasting and Media Systems in Troubled European Democracies.

By: Połońska, EvaContributor(s): Beckett, CharlieMaterial type: TextTextSeries: eBooks on DemandPublisher: Cham : Palgrave Macmillan US, 2019Copyright date: ©2019Description: 1 online resource (407 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9783030027100Subject(s): Europe-Social conditions-21st centuryGenre/Form: Electronic books.Additional physical formats: Print version:: Public Service Broadcasting and Media Systems in Troubled European DemocraciesDDC classification: 302.23 LOC classification: HM621-HM656Online resources: Click here to view this ebook.
Contents:
Intro -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- List of Contributors -- List of Charts -- Introduction -- What's Happening with Our Democracies? -- The Rise of Populism -- Media in Troubled Democracies -- Public Service Broadcasting and the Need to Rethink 'Public Service' -- About This Book -- References -- Part I Public Service Media in Troubled Democracies -- PSM Contribution to Democracy: News, Editorial Standards and Informed Citizenship -- Introduction: Valuing Journalism in a Disposable News Culture -- Focus of the Report: PSM vs Commercial Broadcast News -- Understanding Distinctiveness and Comparing News Output -- Is PSM Distinctive from Commercial Television News? -- Is PSM Distinctive from Commercial Television News During Election Campaigns? -- The Future of News and PSM Limitations -- Towards an Informed Citizenry: Does PSM More Effectively Raise Public Knowledge Than Commercial Media? -- The Role of PSM in an Increasingly Partisan News Environment -- Conclusion: The Need for PSM in an Increasingly Commercialised Media Landscape -- References -- The European Union and PSM in Troubled Democracies: A Bridge Too Far? -- Introduction -- Background: Economic Intervention (2001-2008) -- Shift Towards Political Intervention (2008-2018) -- Change in the European Commission's Political Position -- Indirect Policies of Support for the Independence of PSM -- European Parliament Resolutions -- Council of Europe Recommendations -- European Commission Pressure: Hungary and Poland -- An Indirect Approach: Audiovisual and Media Services Regulation -- Conclusions -- References -- Part II Western Europe -- Public Service Media in France -- Introduction -- Historical Overview -- The Contemporary Media System -- From Analogue to Digital -- Growth of Online Content and Platforms -- Transnationalisation -- Challenges Facing Public Service Media.
Public Service Media Values -- Relations with the State -- A Public Sphere for Political Expression -- A Mirror of Society -- Organisational Structure -- Modes of Funding -- Responding to the Transnational Challenge -- Conclusion -- References -- Public Service Media in a Divided Country: Governance and Functioning of Public Broadcasters in Belgium -- Introduction -- From One National Public Broadcaster to a Public Broadcaster for Each Language Community -- Public Broadcasters in a Non-nation State Context: Repercussions and Challenges -- Differences on the Level of Governance and Politics -- Differences in Public Broadcasters and 'National' Identity -- Differences on the Level of Markets and Economic Importance -- Conclusion -- References -- Part III Southern Europe -- PSM in Italy: Troubled RAI in a Troubled Country -- Introduction -- A Shrinking Media Market -- Reforming RAI Under the Renzi Government (2014-2016) -- A Brief History of Post-1994 Reform Attempts -- RAI's New Governance: 'Keep the Political Parties Out of RAI'? -- Recent Changes to RAI's Funding System: 'Everyone Pays, Everyone Pays Less' -- RAI and Politics Under Renzi -- RAI and the Digital Challenge -- Conclusion -- References -- Greek ERT: State or Public Service Broadcaster? -- Introduction -- Politics and Media in Greece -- The Media in Greece -- ERT: The Mouthpiece of the Government and the Victim of a Haphazard Deregulation -- The 1997 Attempt to Restructure ERT Under the Modernists -- ERT as a Vehicle for the Development of Digital Terrestrial Television -- The Closing Down and the Re-opening of the ERT and the Lost Chance for ERT to Become a Public Service Institution -- Concluding Remarks -- References -- Political Interference in the Spanish and Catalan Public Service Media: Attempts to Reform and Resistance to Change (2006-2017) -- Introduction.
Dispute Over RTVE's Governance Model: Three Laws in 11 Years -- Background: PSM's Democratic Fit Between 1977 and 2006 -- Commitment to a Parliamentary Governance Model (2006-2012) -- Return to Governmentalisation in 2012 -- Reform and Counter-Reform of the Catalan PSM -- Parliamentary Reform of 2007 -- Failed Implementation -- Return to the Governmentalised Model Within the Context of the Catalan Independence Process (2012-2017) -- Conclusions -- References -- PSM Transformation in Western Balkan Countries: When Western Ideals Meet Reality -- Introduction -- Political Transition of the WB Region -- Media Transition in WB Countries -- Main Threats and Challenges to PSB Survival in WB Region -- Political Colonization -- Broken Funding Models -- Technological Disadvantage -- Conclusion -- References -- Part IV Central and Eastern Europe -- A Map of Political Discourse Regarding Polish Public Service Media -- The Media and Political Systems in Poland After 1989 and the Role of Public Media -- Public Discourse and Its Varieties -- Political Debate on Public Media in 2015 and 2016 -- The Revolutionary Model of a "Good Change" -- The Model of Replacing Media Elites in Retaliation and Revenge -- The Nostalgic Model: Civic Media -- Conclusion -- References -- Watchdog, Lapdog, or Attack Dog? Public Service Media and the Law and Justice Government in Poland -- Introduction -- Two Decades of Media Transitions in Poland After 1989 -- The U-Turn: PiS and the Reversal of Democratic Transition in Poland -- Theory and Methodology -- Public Service Media and Law and Justice Government -- TVP as a Universal, Diverse, Independent and Distinctive Broadcaster -- Universality -- Diversity -- Independence -- Distinctiveness -- Telewizja Polska and the Political System, Economy and Society -- TVP and the Political System -- TVP and the Economy -- TVP and Society.
Conclusion: Liberal Democracy Cancelled -- References -- Part V Media Systems in Troubled Democracies -- How the Media Systems Work in Central and Eastern Europe -- Introduction: Defining 'Central and Eastern Europe' -- Four Models of Media and Politics in Central and Eastern Europe -- Political Context: Media Systems in a Trap of Politicisation -- Media Production Context: Commercialisation and Its Influence for the Media Content -- The New Technologies-The Role of Social Platforms -- Conclusion -- References -- Media in Hungary: Three Pillars of an Illiberal Democracy -- Introduction: Towards an Illiberal Media Policy -- Mechanisms of a Media Policy Aimed at Restricting Diversity -- Occupation of the Media Supervisory Organisations -- Media Council -- Public Service Media -- Market Manipulation and Soft Censorship -- Distorting the Advertising Market -- Manipulating the Information Environment, Controlling the Discursive Agenda -- Increasing Self-Censorship -- Limited Access to Public Information -- The Role of State Propaganda -- Concluding Remarks -- References -- Post-communist Media and the Impact of Democratization in Bulgaria and Romania -- Introduction -- Background -- Media Freedom -- Journalistic Culture -- Media Ownership -- Corruption -- Digital Media -- Conclusion -- References -- Transformation of Media in 'In-Between' Post-communist Societies: An Interdisciplinary Approach -- Introduction -- Diverging Trajectories of Media Change in Post-communist Countries: Legacies of the Past? -- Political Science Conceptual Tools Useful to Understand Media Transformations in 'In-Between' Societies -- Departure from the Transition Paradigm -- State Capture and Its Impact on Institutions -- Attention to State- and Institution-Building in Transformational Process -- Informal Institutions.
The Institutional Environment for Media Independence in Ukraine -- Flawed and Incomplete Media Legislation -- Dependent Media Regulators -- Lack of Judicial Independence and Selective Enforcement of Laws and Civil Codes -- Informal Institutions in Media-Politics Relationships in Ukraine -- The Persistence of Informal Institutions in Ukraine: The Mechanism of Reproduction -- Structure of Media Ownership -- Conclusion -- References -- Post-truth and Normalised Lies in Russia -- Introduction -- Media and Politics Under Putin -- What Is Post-truth? -- The Normalisation of Lying -- Lies and Disinformation -- Anti-Putin Protests -- Normalising Lies -- Manipulating Democracy -- Inventing Lies -- Postmodernity -- References -- Power, Patronage and Press Freedom: The Political Economy of Turkey's Media -- Introduction -- Legal Obstacles and the Turkish Media Since 1980 -- The Tangled Web of Politics and Business -- Censorship and Self-Censorship -- The Media Under the AKP Tutelage (2002-Present) -- The Sum of All Fears -- Conclusion -- Bibliography.
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Intro -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- List of Contributors -- List of Charts -- Introduction -- What's Happening with Our Democracies? -- The Rise of Populism -- Media in Troubled Democracies -- Public Service Broadcasting and the Need to Rethink 'Public Service' -- About This Book -- References -- Part I Public Service Media in Troubled Democracies -- PSM Contribution to Democracy: News, Editorial Standards and Informed Citizenship -- Introduction: Valuing Journalism in a Disposable News Culture -- Focus of the Report: PSM vs Commercial Broadcast News -- Understanding Distinctiveness and Comparing News Output -- Is PSM Distinctive from Commercial Television News? -- Is PSM Distinctive from Commercial Television News During Election Campaigns? -- The Future of News and PSM Limitations -- Towards an Informed Citizenry: Does PSM More Effectively Raise Public Knowledge Than Commercial Media? -- The Role of PSM in an Increasingly Partisan News Environment -- Conclusion: The Need for PSM in an Increasingly Commercialised Media Landscape -- References -- The European Union and PSM in Troubled Democracies: A Bridge Too Far? -- Introduction -- Background: Economic Intervention (2001-2008) -- Shift Towards Political Intervention (2008-2018) -- Change in the European Commission's Political Position -- Indirect Policies of Support for the Independence of PSM -- European Parliament Resolutions -- Council of Europe Recommendations -- European Commission Pressure: Hungary and Poland -- An Indirect Approach: Audiovisual and Media Services Regulation -- Conclusions -- References -- Part II Western Europe -- Public Service Media in France -- Introduction -- Historical Overview -- The Contemporary Media System -- From Analogue to Digital -- Growth of Online Content and Platforms -- Transnationalisation -- Challenges Facing Public Service Media.

Public Service Media Values -- Relations with the State -- A Public Sphere for Political Expression -- A Mirror of Society -- Organisational Structure -- Modes of Funding -- Responding to the Transnational Challenge -- Conclusion -- References -- Public Service Media in a Divided Country: Governance and Functioning of Public Broadcasters in Belgium -- Introduction -- From One National Public Broadcaster to a Public Broadcaster for Each Language Community -- Public Broadcasters in a Non-nation State Context: Repercussions and Challenges -- Differences on the Level of Governance and Politics -- Differences in Public Broadcasters and 'National' Identity -- Differences on the Level of Markets and Economic Importance -- Conclusion -- References -- Part III Southern Europe -- PSM in Italy: Troubled RAI in a Troubled Country -- Introduction -- A Shrinking Media Market -- Reforming RAI Under the Renzi Government (2014-2016) -- A Brief History of Post-1994 Reform Attempts -- RAI's New Governance: 'Keep the Political Parties Out of RAI'? -- Recent Changes to RAI's Funding System: 'Everyone Pays, Everyone Pays Less' -- RAI and Politics Under Renzi -- RAI and the Digital Challenge -- Conclusion -- References -- Greek ERT: State or Public Service Broadcaster? -- Introduction -- Politics and Media in Greece -- The Media in Greece -- ERT: The Mouthpiece of the Government and the Victim of a Haphazard Deregulation -- The 1997 Attempt to Restructure ERT Under the Modernists -- ERT as a Vehicle for the Development of Digital Terrestrial Television -- The Closing Down and the Re-opening of the ERT and the Lost Chance for ERT to Become a Public Service Institution -- Concluding Remarks -- References -- Political Interference in the Spanish and Catalan Public Service Media: Attempts to Reform and Resistance to Change (2006-2017) -- Introduction.

Dispute Over RTVE's Governance Model: Three Laws in 11 Years -- Background: PSM's Democratic Fit Between 1977 and 2006 -- Commitment to a Parliamentary Governance Model (2006-2012) -- Return to Governmentalisation in 2012 -- Reform and Counter-Reform of the Catalan PSM -- Parliamentary Reform of 2007 -- Failed Implementation -- Return to the Governmentalised Model Within the Context of the Catalan Independence Process (2012-2017) -- Conclusions -- References -- PSM Transformation in Western Balkan Countries: When Western Ideals Meet Reality -- Introduction -- Political Transition of the WB Region -- Media Transition in WB Countries -- Main Threats and Challenges to PSB Survival in WB Region -- Political Colonization -- Broken Funding Models -- Technological Disadvantage -- Conclusion -- References -- Part IV Central and Eastern Europe -- A Map of Political Discourse Regarding Polish Public Service Media -- The Media and Political Systems in Poland After 1989 and the Role of Public Media -- Public Discourse and Its Varieties -- Political Debate on Public Media in 2015 and 2016 -- The Revolutionary Model of a "Good Change" -- The Model of Replacing Media Elites in Retaliation and Revenge -- The Nostalgic Model: Civic Media -- Conclusion -- References -- Watchdog, Lapdog, or Attack Dog? Public Service Media and the Law and Justice Government in Poland -- Introduction -- Two Decades of Media Transitions in Poland After 1989 -- The U-Turn: PiS and the Reversal of Democratic Transition in Poland -- Theory and Methodology -- Public Service Media and Law and Justice Government -- TVP as a Universal, Diverse, Independent and Distinctive Broadcaster -- Universality -- Diversity -- Independence -- Distinctiveness -- Telewizja Polska and the Political System, Economy and Society -- TVP and the Political System -- TVP and the Economy -- TVP and Society.

Conclusion: Liberal Democracy Cancelled -- References -- Part V Media Systems in Troubled Democracies -- How the Media Systems Work in Central and Eastern Europe -- Introduction: Defining 'Central and Eastern Europe' -- Four Models of Media and Politics in Central and Eastern Europe -- Political Context: Media Systems in a Trap of Politicisation -- Media Production Context: Commercialisation and Its Influence for the Media Content -- The New Technologies-The Role of Social Platforms -- Conclusion -- References -- Media in Hungary: Three Pillars of an Illiberal Democracy -- Introduction: Towards an Illiberal Media Policy -- Mechanisms of a Media Policy Aimed at Restricting Diversity -- Occupation of the Media Supervisory Organisations -- Media Council -- Public Service Media -- Market Manipulation and Soft Censorship -- Distorting the Advertising Market -- Manipulating the Information Environment, Controlling the Discursive Agenda -- Increasing Self-Censorship -- Limited Access to Public Information -- The Role of State Propaganda -- Concluding Remarks -- References -- Post-communist Media and the Impact of Democratization in Bulgaria and Romania -- Introduction -- Background -- Media Freedom -- Journalistic Culture -- Media Ownership -- Corruption -- Digital Media -- Conclusion -- References -- Transformation of Media in 'In-Between' Post-communist Societies: An Interdisciplinary Approach -- Introduction -- Diverging Trajectories of Media Change in Post-communist Countries: Legacies of the Past? -- Political Science Conceptual Tools Useful to Understand Media Transformations in 'In-Between' Societies -- Departure from the Transition Paradigm -- State Capture and Its Impact on Institutions -- Attention to State- and Institution-Building in Transformational Process -- Informal Institutions.

The Institutional Environment for Media Independence in Ukraine -- Flawed and Incomplete Media Legislation -- Dependent Media Regulators -- Lack of Judicial Independence and Selective Enforcement of Laws and Civil Codes -- Informal Institutions in Media-Politics Relationships in Ukraine -- The Persistence of Informal Institutions in Ukraine: The Mechanism of Reproduction -- Structure of Media Ownership -- Conclusion -- References -- Post-truth and Normalised Lies in Russia -- Introduction -- Media and Politics Under Putin -- What Is Post-truth? -- The Normalisation of Lying -- Lies and Disinformation -- Anti-Putin Protests -- Normalising Lies -- Manipulating Democracy -- Inventing Lies -- Postmodernity -- References -- Power, Patronage and Press Freedom: The Political Economy of Turkey's Media -- Introduction -- Legal Obstacles and the Turkish Media Since 1980 -- The Tangled Web of Politics and Business -- Censorship and Self-Censorship -- The Media Under the AKP Tutelage (2002-Present) -- The Sum of All Fears -- Conclusion -- Bibliography.

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