Energy for the 21st century : a comprehensive guide to conventional and alternative sources / Roy L. Nersesian.
By: Nersesian, Roy L.Material type: TextPublisher: Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, c2007Description: xviii, 402 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.ISBN: 0765613239 (cloth : alk. paper); 9780765613233 (hbk.).Other title: Energy for the twenty-first century.Subject(s): Power resources | Energy policyDDC classification: 333.79 LOC classification: HD9502.A2 | N465 2007
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Includes bibliographical references and index.
List of tables and figures -- ch. 1. Are we on Easter Island? -- Easter Island -- The mathematics of extinction -- Progress is our most important product -- The unremitting rise in population -- The case of double exponential growth -- A lesson in fish -- From hunting to farming -- Energy depletion -- Notes -- ch. 2. Electricity and the utility industry -- It takes energy to make energy -- Energy for electricity Generation -- Enhancing efficiency in electricity generation -- Early history of electricity -- Generating electricity -- Generating electricity commercially -- System operation -- Methods of rate regulation -- Operating models of an era of deregulation/liberalization -- Utility pools -- When demand exceeds supply -- The real lesson of California -- Notes -- ch. 3. Biomass -- Yesterdayʼs fuel -- Today's fuel : China, India, Indonesia, Brazil -- Biomass as a motor vehicle fuel -- Biomass for electricity generation -- Biogas -- Tomorrow's fuel -- Notes -- ch. 4. Coal -- The first energy crisis -- The origin and history of coal -- Coal and the Industrial Revolution -- Coal and railroads -- Coal and steel -- The rise and fall of King Coal -- Types of coal -- Coal mining -- Coal today -- The role of coal among the major consumers -- The case against coal -- Clean coal technologies -- Eliminating coal not so easy -- Notes -- ch. 5. The story of big oil -- History of lighting -- History of oil -- Enter John D. Rockefeller -- Enter Marcus Samuel -- Spindletop -- Spindletop and Shell.
The emergence of oil as a strategically vital commodity -- The era of the Seven Sisters -- Opening up the Middle East -- Early attempts at oil price controls -- Enter Saudi Arabia and Kuwait -- Exit the key players -- Shareholders and stakeholders -- Development of Saudi Arabiaʼs oil fields -- The shoes begin to fall -- The next shoe to fall -- The birth of OPEC -- The 1973 oil crisis -- The era of high oil prices -- The end of the era of high oil prices -- The era of moderate oil prices -- Itʼs not oil prices any more, it's oil security -- Oil and diplomacy -- Oil and environmentalists -- Role of oil companies after the oil crisis -- A changing world -- Are oil companies' margins all that great? -- The future role of oil companies -- Notes -- ch. 6. Oil -- The Earth as an oil manufacturer -- Formation of oil -- Oil Exploration -- Drilling rights -- Drilling equipment -- Directional drilling -- Offshore drilling rigs -- Evaluating a well -- Completing a well -- Moving the oil to the well -- Maintaining reservoir pressure -- Getting the oil to a refinery -- Tankers and barges -- Oil spills -- Refining -- Oil reserves -- Are we on the downward slippery slope? -- Comparison of major discoveries versus consumption -- Was 2004 a watershed year? -- Synthetic crude -- Challenge of oil : the automobile -- Alternative fueled vehicles -- Enhancing engine efficiency -- Internalizing an externality -- Is this politically acceptable? -- Notes.
ch. 7. Natural gas -- Background -- Early history of coal gas -- History of natural gas -- The battle over lighting -- Long distance transmission -- Federal regulation -- The War years -- Opening up the Northeast -- Last stop before total regulation -- Unraveling natural gas regulation -- The road to deregulation -- From source to consumer -- Natural gas as a fuel -- The European version of deregulation -- LPG : prelude to LNG -- Liquefied natural gas -- Organizing and financing the LNG supply chain -- LNG carriers -- LNG pricing -- The future of LNG -- Gas to liquids (GTL) technology -- Methane from coal -- Methane from shale -- Methane hydrates -- Notes -- ch. 8. Nuclear and hydro power -- Background -- What does a 1,000 megawatt plant mean? -- Physics of a nuclear reactor -- Nuclear incidents and accidents -- Three Mile Island incident -- Chernobyl -- Weapons proliferation -- Disposal of spent fuel -- Commercial reactors -- Fusion power -- Future of nuclear power -- Hydropower -- The saga of the Hoover and the Glen Canyon Dams -- Aswan High Dam -- Notes -- ch. 9. Sustainable energy -- The meaning of sustainability -- Geothermal energy -- Wind energy -- sustainable energy action plan -- Notes.
ch. 10. Looking toward the future -- The hydrogen economy -- Hydrogen stores electricity -- Tomorrow's world of hydrogen -- Climate -- Climatic changes during recorded history -- Where is climate headed? -- Carbon dioxide conundrum -- Projecting the future -- The environment -- The U.S. Clean Air Acts -- The Montreal Protocol -- The Kyoto Protocol -- Efficiency and conservation -- Energy Star Program -- Light emitting diodes (LED) -- CAFE standards -- Notes -- ch. 11. An Energy strategy -- Oil -- An unlikely projection -- Scarcity playing itself out -- Increasing supply -- Decreasing demand -- Internalizing and externality -- A plan to get out of the Middle East -- Pollution -- We need time -- Notes -- Index -- About the author.
List of Tables and Figures: Top world ethanol producers -Contribution of biomass -Employment, productivity and safety -Shareholdersʼ percentage -Employment patterns of jack-ups and semisubmersibles -Historical development of refining processes -Write-up of OPEC reserves -Worldʼs largest oil fields -Energy content of motor vehicle fuels -How far can a gasoline tax go? -International natural gas pipeline movements -U.S. electricity generating units -Worldʼs largest dams in terms of electricity generation -Economic analysis of actual solar energy system -Calculating carbon release -Global warming potential and atmospheric lifetime of greenhouse gases -Proposed CAFE standards for light trucks -Average annual energy costs of oil and natural gas -2030 projected oil demand and supply -Exhausting a resource -History of the global population -Percentage of population below age 15 -Annual change in world population -Energy consumption and world population growth -Global per capita energy consumption -Marine life harvest -Energy consumption -Growth in world electricity demand -Worldʼs leading nations in electricity generation -Energy sources for electricity generation -Global coal production/consumption -Worldʼs leading consumers/ producers of coal -Known coal reserves and R/P ratios U.S. Oil and coal prices- Oil consumption by nation in 2002 -Role of coal in China and India -Role of Coal in the United States and Europe -Role of coal in Russia and Japan Growth in World and U.S. Oil consumption and OPEC production -U.S. oil consumption and production -
History of Middle East crude oil prices-Saudi Arabia oil production and consumption-Per capita GDP in Saudi Arabia, Venezuela and Japan since the oil crisis-Cost factors of a U.S. gallon of regular gasoline in 2000-Comparison of gasoline prices in Europe and the United States-Success ratios and productivity of U.S. oil and gas wells-Nations with declining oil production-Worldʼs proven reserves-World ratio of reserves to production-Major world oil producers-Major world oil consumers-Major world oil reserves-Frequency of discovery of giant oil fields-Comparison of major discoveries versus consumption-World heavy oil and bitumen resources-U.S. versus world automobile population-Composition of new car sales in the United States-Automobiles per one thousand population-Average miles driven per year for passenger cars-Arabian gulf oil exports and U.S. imports from the Arabian gulf-Consumption versus waste of natural gas-World natural gas consumption in tcf-Worldʼs largest natural gas reserves-Sources and destinations of LNG-U.S. average natural gas wellhead price U.S. Natural gas reserves versus consumption-Distribution of electricity-generating capacity-Growth in nuclear power in terms of displaced fossil fuels-Role of nuclear power in generating electricity-World population of commercial nuclear reactors-Worldʼs largest hydropower producers-Nations with the greatest dependence on hydropower-Principal wind energy generating nations-Growth in solar photovoltaic (PV) power-Automobile and light truck CAFE standards-U.S. light truck and automobile population-U.S. gasoline price and consumption 2005.