Can Women Save Japan?.
By: Steinberg, Chad.
Contributor(s): Nakane, Masato.Material type: TextSeries: eBooks on Demand.IMF Working Papers: Publisher: Washington : International Monetary Fund, 2012Description: 1 online resource (52 p.).ISBN: 9781475512915.Subject(s): Women -- Employment -- Japan | Women -- JapanGenre/Form: Electronic books.Additional physical formats: Print version:: Can Women Save Japan?DDC classification: 332.1 | 332.1532 Online resources: Click here to view this ebook.
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Cover; Contents; I. Introduction; Figures; 1. Demographic Change (1980-2040); 2. Working-age Population Change (1950-2050); 3. Immigration and Female Labor Participation; 4. Real GDP: Policy Scenario with Higher Female Participation; II. Explaining Differences in FLP Rates across OECD Countries; 5. FLP Distribution Across 22 Countries; 6. Difference by Gender in Prime-age Labor Participation Rate; A. Empirical Results: The Role of Demographics; Tables; 1. Gap between FLP and MLP, and Demographic Variables; 7. Demographic Variables and FLP Changes (1970-2007)
B. Empirical Results Continued: The Role of Policies2. Change Over Time in Number of Children and Education Effects; 8. Ratio of Demographic Variables SDs in 2005 to 1980 SDs; 3. Effects on FLP by One S.D. Change of Each Variable; 9. Marginal Effects of Family Allowance and Tax Wedge; III. Why Is Japan Different?; 10. FLP-MLP Gap vs. Childcare per Child; 11.1 FLP vs. Children per Woman (1980); 11.2 FLP vs. Children per Woman (2008); 12. Children per Woman vs. Childcare per Child (2007); IV. Women to the Rescue: Policies to Raise FLP in Japan; A. Hurdle 1: Employment and Promotion Policies
13. Female Managers (2009)14. Female Sogoshoku Workers in 2000 and 2008; 15. Gender Gap in Median Wages (2009); B. Hurdle 2: Balancing Family Responsibilities with Work; 16. Female Labor Participation Rate by Age Group (2009); 17. Take-up Rate of Parental Leave (1996-2011); 18. New Mothers' Maternity Leave (2008); 19. Enrollment of Small Children in Formal Childcare (2008); 20. Daycare Capacity and Waitlisted Children (2002-2010); 4. Reasons for Stay Out of Labor Market among Female Labor Force, 2010; 21. Time Dedicated to Childcare by Men; 22. Public Expenditure on Child Support (2005)
C. Special Issues for Low-Income Households23.1 Institutional Advantages for Spouses by Annual Income; 23.2 Distribution of Female Annual Wage (2007); V. Conclusions; 24. Relative Poverty Rate for Single-Parent Household; Boxes; 1. The Netherlands' Part-Time Economy; 25. Female Labor Participation in Japan and the Netherlands; 26. Female Part-time Employment (2010); 2. Family-Friendly Sweden; 27. Parental and Maternity Leave vs. Compensation (2008); Appendix I. Additional Tables and Figures; 5. Number of Observations in the Dataset (1960-2008); 6. Latest Data Available
7. Correlation among All Variables8. Gap between FLP and MLP, and Demographic and Policy Variables; 9. Gap between FLP and MLP, and Demographic and Policy Variables including Marriage Rate; 10. Regression of FLP on Demographic and Policy Variables; 11. Effects on FLP by One S.D. Change of Ten-year Average Variables; 28. Scatter Plots of Each Variable in Levels; 29. Scatter Plots of Each Variable in Changes; 30. Scatter Plots of Each Ten-year Mean Variable at Level; 31. Within Variable Explanation; 32. Cross-section Explanation; 33. Cross-section Explanation using Ten-year Average
Appendix II. Definition and Sources of Data
Japan''s potential growth rate is steadily falling with the aging of its population. This paper explores the extent to which raising female labor participation can help slow this trend. Using a cross-country database we find that smaller families, higher female education, and lower marriage rates are associated with much of the rise in women''s aggregate participation rates within countries over time, but that policies are likely increasingly important for explaining differences across countries. Raising female participation could provide an important boost to growth, but women face two hurdles in participating in the workforce in Japan. First, few working women start out in career-track positions, and second, many women drop out of the workforce following childbirth. To increase women''s attachment to work Japan should consider policies to reduce the gender gap in career positions and to provide better support for working mothers.
Description based upon print version of record.