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The Color of justice : race, ethnicity, and crime in America / Samuel Walker, Cassia Spohn, Miriam DeLone.

By: Walker, Samuel, 1942-.
Contributor(s): Spohn, Cassia [jt. auth.] | DeLone, Miriam [jt. auth.].
Material type: TextTextSeries: Contemporary issues in crime and justice series: Publisher: Belmont, CA : Wadsworth Publishing Co., c2012Edition: [5th ed.].Description: xix, 537 p. : ill, tables, 24 cm.ISBN: 9781111346928; 1111346925.Subject(s): Discrimination in criminal justice administration -- United States | Race discrimination -- United States | Ethnicity -- United States | Social structure -- United States | Minorities -- Crimes against -- United States | Police misconduct -- United States | United States -- Race relations | United States -- Social conditionsDDC classification: 364.08900973 Online resources: Contributor biographical information | Publisher description | Table of contents only
Contents:
1. Race, ethnicity, and crime: American's continuing crisis -- Race, ethnicity, and justice in America -- Is discrimination just a myth? -- The colors of America: racial and ethnic categories -- Politics of racial and ethnic labels -- The quality of criminal justice data on race and ethnicity -- The crime and immigration controversy -- Sorting out the issues on immigration, unauthorized immigration, and crime -- The geography of racial and ethnic justice -- Disparity versus discrimination -- A theoretical perspective on race, ethnicity, and crime -- Alternative theories --
2. Victims and offenders: myths and realities about crime -- Popular images of victims and offenders: a racial hoax -- Media and crime -- Racial hoaxes -- Race and gender of crime victims -- Broader picture of the crime victim -- The National Crime Victimization Survey -- Household victimization -- The effect of urbanization -- Personal victimization -- Lifetime likelihood of victimization -- Homicide victimization -- A more comprehensive picture of the crime victim -- Picture of the typical offender -- Official arrest statistics -- Problems with UCR data -- Arrest data -- Perceptions of offenders by victims -- Problems with NCVS Offender data -- Perceptions of offenders -- Self-report surveys -- Characteristics of offenders -- Theoretical explanations for the racial gap in offending -- Community influence on the racial gap in offending rates -- Drug offenders -- Picture of the typical criminal offender -- Crime as an intraracial event -- National Crime Victimization Survey -- Uniform Crime Report Homicide Reports -- Crime as an interracial (hate) event -- Ethnic youth gangs -- Gang myths and realities -- Varieties of ethnic gangs -- African American -- Native American -- Asian American -- Hispanic -- White --
3. Race ethnicity, social structure, and crime -- Snapshot of social inequality and criminal justice -- Inequality and crime -- Long-term trends and the recession -- Two societies? -- Economic inequality -- Income -- Wealth -- The "family thing": inheritance -- The growing gap between the very rich and most Americans -- Unemployment -- Poverty status -- Insurance coverage -- Social capital and cultural capital -- The debate over the Underclass -- Community social structure -- Residential segregation -- Residential segregation and crime -- The impact of crime and drugs -- Well-being -- Theoretical perspectives on inequality and crime -- Social Strain Theory -- Differential Association Theory -- Social Disorganization Theory -- Culture Conflict Theory -- Conflict Theory -- Routing Activity Theory -- Limits of current theories -- Inequality and social reform -- The impact of the Civil Rights Movement --
4. Justice on the street? The police and racial and ethnic minorities -- Unequal justice? -- Contextual approach -- Long history of conflict -- The police and a changing America -- Public attitudes about the police -- Perceptions of police officer conduct -- Policing racial and ethnic minority communities -- The African American Community -- The Hispanic Community -- The Native American Community -- Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders -- The Middle Eastern Community -- Police use of deadly force -- Disparity versus discrimination in police shootings -- Long-term changes in police use of deadly force -- Controlling police shootings -- "Police brutality" : police use of physical force -- Discrimination in arrests? -- Impact of the War on Drugs -- Impact of an arrest record -- Reducing disparities in police use of force and arrests: recent research -- Traffic stops: racial profiling -- The use of race in law enforcement -- Profiling contexts -- The data on traffic stops -- Interpreting traffic stop data -- The PERF Policy on traffic enforcement -- Eliminating bias in traffic enforcement -- The impact of formal policies: the case of the customs Bureau -- The impact of the Media on police conduct -- National-level progress on racial disparities? -- Continued progress? The impact of the recession -- Street stops and frisks -- Special issue: stereotyping and routine police work -- Verbal abuse -- Police officer attitudes and behavior -- Police corruption and people of color -- Police-community relations programs -- Special PCR units -- Community policing and problem-oriented policing -- Responding to community concerns -- Reducing office misconduct -- Citizen complaints against the police -- Citizen oversight of the police -- Police employment practices -- "Not your father's police department" -- Trends in African American and Hispanic employment -- The Law of Employment Discrimination -- The Affirmative Action controversy -- Discrimination in assignment -- The impact of diversity -- Officers of color as supervisors and chief executives --
5. The Courts: a quest for justice during the pretrial process -- African Americans in court: The Case of the Scottsboro Boys -- The situation today -- Decision regarding counsel and bail -- Racial minorities and the Right to Counsel -- Racial minorities and bail decision making -- Charging and plea bargaining decisions -- Prosecutors' charging decisions -- Prosecutional discretion in the context of mandatory minimum sentences and habitual offender laws -- The effect of offender race and victim race on charging decisions -- Prosecution of pregnant women who abuse drugs: racial discrimination? -- Race and plea bargaining decisions --
6. Justice on the Bench? -- Trial and adjudication in Criminal Court -- Race / ethnicity and the criminal trial -- Trial and adjudication in the Twenty-First Century -- Selection of the jury pool -- Racial discrimination in selection of the jury pool -- The exclusion of Mexican-Americans from jury service -- Techniques for increasing racial diversity -- The peremptory challenge: racial profiling in the courtroom? -- The Supreme Court and the peremptory challenge: from Swain to Batson -- Race and jury selection in the Twenty-First Century -- Exonerating the innocent: rape, race, and mistaken eyewitness identification -- Rape, race and misidentification -- Playing the "race card" in a criminal trial -- Race-conscious jury nullification: Black Power in the courtroom? -- Randall Kennedy's critique --
7. Race and sentencing: in search of fairness and justice -- Race and sentencing: is the United States moving forward or backward? -- Racial disparity in sentencing -- Five explanations for racial disparities in sentencing -- Empirical research on race and sentencing -- When does race / ethnicity matter? -- Race / ethnicity and sentencing: direct and indirect effects -- Are Hispanics sentenced more harshly than all other offenders? -- Are illegal immigrants sentenced differently than U.S. citizens? -- Are Asian Americans sentenced more leniently than all other offenders? -- Native Americans and sentencing disparity: disparity in State and Federal Courts -- Race / ethnicity, gender, age, and employment: a volatile combination? -- Differential treatment of interracial and intraracial sexual assault -- Offender-victim race and sentences for sexual assault -- The effect of race on sentencing for various types of crimes -- The liberation hypothesis and offenders convicted of violent felonies -- Racial discrimination in the sentencing of misdemeanor offenders? -- Sentencing and the War on Drugs -- Racial disparities in sentences imposed for drug offenses -- Sentencing of drug offenders in State Courts -- Sentencing of drug offenders in Federal Courts -- Does it make a difference? Comparison of the sentencing decisions of African American, Hispanic, and White judges -- Decision making by African American and White Federal judges -- Decision making by African American and White State Court judges -- Reasons for similarities in decision making --
8. The color of death: race and the death penalty -- The constitutionality of the death penalty -- Furman v. Georgia -- Post-Furman decisions -- Attitudes toward capital punishment -- Race and the death penalty: the empirical evidence -- Statistical evidence of racial disparity -- Pre-Furman studies -- Post-Gregg studies -- Race and the Federal capital sentencing process -- Explanations for disparate treatment -- McClesky v. Kemp: the Supreme Court and racial discrimination in the application of the death penalty -- The aftermath of McCleskey: calls for reform or abolition of the death penalty -- The Racial Justice Act -- The death penalty in the Twenty-First Century -- The Movement to Reform the Death Penalty -- The Movement to Abolish the Death Penalty --
9. Corrections in America: a portrait in color -- The incarcerated: prison and jail populations -- Minority overrepresentation -- Racial and ethnic female prisoners -- Federal racial and ethnic prisoners -- Security levels of facilities -- Race, ethnicity, and recidivism -- Historic trends -- Impact of the War on Drugs -- Incarceration rates -- Jails and minorities -- The role of jail -- Minority overrepresentation -- Community corrections -- Parole: early release from prison -- Success and failure of parole -- Probation: a case of sentencing discrimination? -- Community corrections: a Native American example -- Theoretical perspectives on the racial distribution of correctional populations -- Adjustment to prison -- Hostility among released inmates -- Race and religion -- Prison gangs -- Aryan Brotherhood -- Black Guerilla Family -- Mandingo Warriors -- Mexican Mafia -- Neta -- Texas Syndicate -- Women in prison --
10. Minority youth and crime: minority youth in court -- Young racial minorities as victims and offenders -- Juveniles as victims of crime -- Juveniles as offenders -- Juveniles of color and the police -- Race / ethnicity and the Juvenile Justice System -- Race / ethnicity and Juvenile Court outcomes in five jurisdictions -- Race / ethnicity, gender, and age: Juvenile justice in Nebraska -- Transfer of juveniles to Criminal Court -- Explaining disparate treatment of juvenile offenders -- Juveniles under correctional supervision --
11. The color of justice -- Explaining persistent racial and ethnic disparities -- Explaining the disparities: systematic discrimination? -- Past and present -- The stubborn persistence of racial and ethnic disparities.
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Book University of Texas At Tyler
Stacks - 3rd Floor
HV9950 .W33 2010 (Browse shelf) Available 0000002073526

Includes bibliographical references (p. 497-520) and index.

1. Race, ethnicity, and crime: American's continuing crisis -- Race, ethnicity, and justice in America -- Is discrimination just a myth? -- The colors of America: racial and ethnic categories -- Politics of racial and ethnic labels -- The quality of criminal justice data on race and ethnicity -- The crime and immigration controversy -- Sorting out the issues on immigration, unauthorized immigration, and crime -- The geography of racial and ethnic justice -- Disparity versus discrimination -- A theoretical perspective on race, ethnicity, and crime -- Alternative theories --

2. Victims and offenders: myths and realities about crime -- Popular images of victims and offenders: a racial hoax -- Media and crime -- Racial hoaxes -- Race and gender of crime victims -- Broader picture of the crime victim -- The National Crime Victimization Survey -- Household victimization -- The effect of urbanization -- Personal victimization -- Lifetime likelihood of victimization -- Homicide victimization -- A more comprehensive picture of the crime victim -- Picture of the typical offender -- Official arrest statistics -- Problems with UCR data -- Arrest data -- Perceptions of offenders by victims -- Problems with NCVS Offender data -- Perceptions of offenders -- Self-report surveys -- Characteristics of offenders -- Theoretical explanations for the racial gap in offending -- Community influence on the racial gap in offending rates -- Drug offenders -- Picture of the typical criminal offender -- Crime as an intraracial event -- National Crime Victimization Survey -- Uniform Crime Report Homicide Reports -- Crime as an interracial (hate) event -- Ethnic youth gangs -- Gang myths and realities -- Varieties of ethnic gangs -- African American -- Native American -- Asian American -- Hispanic -- White --

3. Race ethnicity, social structure, and crime -- Snapshot of social inequality and criminal justice -- Inequality and crime -- Long-term trends and the recession -- Two societies? -- Economic inequality -- Income -- Wealth -- The "family thing": inheritance -- The growing gap between the very rich and most Americans -- Unemployment -- Poverty status -- Insurance coverage -- Social capital and cultural capital -- The debate over the Underclass -- Community social structure -- Residential segregation -- Residential segregation and crime -- The impact of crime and drugs -- Well-being -- Theoretical perspectives on inequality and crime -- Social Strain Theory -- Differential Association Theory -- Social Disorganization Theory -- Culture Conflict Theory -- Conflict Theory -- Routing Activity Theory -- Limits of current theories -- Inequality and social reform -- The impact of the Civil Rights Movement --

4. Justice on the street? The police and racial and ethnic minorities -- Unequal justice? -- Contextual approach -- Long history of conflict -- The police and a changing America -- Public attitudes about the police -- Perceptions of police officer conduct -- Policing racial and ethnic minority communities -- The African American Community -- The Hispanic Community -- The Native American Community -- Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders -- The Middle Eastern Community -- Police use of deadly force -- Disparity versus discrimination in police shootings -- Long-term changes in police use of deadly force -- Controlling police shootings -- "Police brutality" : police use of physical force -- Discrimination in arrests? -- Impact of the War on Drugs -- Impact of an arrest record -- Reducing disparities in police use of force and arrests: recent research -- Traffic stops: racial profiling -- The use of race in law enforcement -- Profiling contexts -- The data on traffic stops -- Interpreting traffic stop data -- The PERF Policy on traffic enforcement -- Eliminating bias in traffic enforcement -- The impact of formal policies: the case of the customs Bureau -- The impact of the Media on police conduct -- National-level progress on racial disparities? -- Continued progress? The impact of the recession -- Street stops and frisks -- Special issue: stereotyping and routine police work -- Verbal abuse -- Police officer attitudes and behavior -- Police corruption and people of color -- Police-community relations programs -- Special PCR units -- Community policing and problem-oriented policing -- Responding to community concerns -- Reducing office misconduct -- Citizen complaints against the police -- Citizen oversight of the police -- Police employment practices -- "Not your father's police department" -- Trends in African American and Hispanic employment -- The Law of Employment Discrimination -- The Affirmative Action controversy -- Discrimination in assignment -- The impact of diversity -- Officers of color as supervisors and chief executives --

5. The Courts: a quest for justice during the pretrial process -- African Americans in court: The Case of the Scottsboro Boys -- The situation today -- Decision regarding counsel and bail -- Racial minorities and the Right to Counsel -- Racial minorities and bail decision making -- Charging and plea bargaining decisions -- Prosecutors' charging decisions -- Prosecutional discretion in the context of mandatory minimum sentences and habitual offender laws -- The effect of offender race and victim race on charging decisions -- Prosecution of pregnant women who abuse drugs: racial discrimination? -- Race and plea bargaining decisions --

6. Justice on the Bench? -- Trial and adjudication in Criminal Court -- Race / ethnicity and the criminal trial -- Trial and adjudication in the Twenty-First Century -- Selection of the jury pool -- Racial discrimination in selection of the jury pool -- The exclusion of Mexican-Americans from jury service -- Techniques for increasing racial diversity -- The peremptory challenge: racial profiling in the courtroom? -- The Supreme Court and the peremptory challenge: from Swain to Batson -- Race and jury selection in the Twenty-First Century -- Exonerating the innocent: rape, race, and mistaken eyewitness identification -- Rape, race and misidentification -- Playing the "race card" in a criminal trial -- Race-conscious jury nullification: Black Power in the courtroom? -- Randall Kennedy's critique --

7. Race and sentencing: in search of fairness and justice -- Race and sentencing: is the United States moving forward or backward? -- Racial disparity in sentencing -- Five explanations for racial disparities in sentencing -- Empirical research on race and sentencing -- When does race / ethnicity matter? -- Race / ethnicity and sentencing: direct and indirect effects -- Are Hispanics sentenced more harshly than all other offenders? -- Are illegal immigrants sentenced differently than U.S. citizens? -- Are Asian Americans sentenced more leniently than all other offenders? -- Native Americans and sentencing disparity: disparity in State and Federal Courts -- Race / ethnicity, gender, age, and employment: a volatile combination? -- Differential treatment of interracial and intraracial sexual assault -- Offender-victim race and sentences for sexual assault -- The effect of race on sentencing for various types of crimes -- The liberation hypothesis and offenders convicted of violent felonies -- Racial discrimination in the sentencing of misdemeanor offenders? -- Sentencing and the War on Drugs -- Racial disparities in sentences imposed for drug offenses -- Sentencing of drug offenders in State Courts -- Sentencing of drug offenders in Federal Courts -- Does it make a difference? Comparison of the sentencing decisions of African American, Hispanic, and White judges -- Decision making by African American and White Federal judges -- Decision making by African American and White State Court judges -- Reasons for similarities in decision making --

8. The color of death: race and the death penalty -- The constitutionality of the death penalty -- Furman v. Georgia -- Post-Furman decisions -- Attitudes toward capital punishment -- Race and the death penalty: the empirical evidence -- Statistical evidence of racial disparity -- Pre-Furman studies -- Post-Gregg studies -- Race and the Federal capital sentencing process -- Explanations for disparate treatment -- McClesky v. Kemp: the Supreme Court and racial discrimination in the application of the death penalty -- The aftermath of McCleskey: calls for reform or abolition of the death penalty -- The Racial Justice Act -- The death penalty in the Twenty-First Century -- The Movement to Reform the Death Penalty -- The Movement to Abolish the Death Penalty --

9. Corrections in America: a portrait in color -- The incarcerated: prison and jail populations -- Minority overrepresentation -- Racial and ethnic female prisoners -- Federal racial and ethnic prisoners -- Security levels of facilities -- Race, ethnicity, and recidivism -- Historic trends -- Impact of the War on Drugs -- Incarceration rates -- Jails and minorities -- The role of jail -- Minority overrepresentation -- Community corrections -- Parole: early release from prison -- Success and failure of parole -- Probation: a case of sentencing discrimination? -- Community corrections: a Native American example -- Theoretical perspectives on the racial distribution of correctional populations -- Adjustment to prison -- Hostility among released inmates -- Race and religion -- Prison gangs -- Aryan Brotherhood -- Black Guerilla Family -- Mandingo Warriors -- Mexican Mafia -- Neta -- Texas Syndicate -- Women in prison --

10. Minority youth and crime: minority youth in court -- Young racial minorities as victims and offenders -- Juveniles as victims of crime -- Juveniles as offenders -- Juveniles of color and the police -- Race / ethnicity and the Juvenile Justice System -- Race / ethnicity and Juvenile Court outcomes in five jurisdictions -- Race / ethnicity, gender, and age: Juvenile justice in Nebraska -- Transfer of juveniles to Criminal Court -- Explaining disparate treatment of juvenile offenders -- Juveniles under correctional supervision --

11. The color of justice -- Explaining persistent racial and ethnic disparities -- Explaining the disparities: systematic discrimination? -- Past and present -- The stubborn persistence of racial and ethnic disparities.

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