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Who gets a childhood? : race and juvenile justice in twentieth-century Texas / William S. Bush.

By: Bush, William S, 1967-.
Material type: TextTextSeries: Politics and culture in the twentieth-century South: Publisher: Athens, Ga. : University of Georgia Press, ©2010Description: [xii], 257 pages : illustrations, photographs, map ; 23 cm.Content type: text Media type: unmediated Carrier type: volumeISBN: 9780820337623; 0820337625.Subject(s): Juvenile justice, Administration of -- Texas -- History -- 20th century | Discrimination in juvenile justice administration -- Texas -- History -- 20th century | Juvenile delinquents -- Texas -- History -- 20th centuryDDC classification: 364.3609764 LOC classification: HV9105.T4 | B87 2010
Contents:
Race, childhood, and juvenile justice history -- The other lost generation: reform and resistance in the juvenile training schools, 1907-1929 -- Socializing delinquency: child welfare, mental health, and the critique of institutions, 1929-1949 -- Juvenile rehabilitation and the color line: the training school for Black delinquent girls, 1943-1950 -- James Dean and Jim Crow: the failure of reform and the racialization of delinquency in the 1950s -- "Hard to reach" : the politics of delinquency prevention in postwar Houston -- Circling the wagons: the struggle over the Texas Youth Council, 1965-1971 -- Creating a right to treatment: Morales v. Turman, 1971-1988 -- The new American dilemma.
Summary: Using Texas as a case study for understanding change in the American juvenile justice system over the past century, the author tells the story of three cycles of scandal, reform, and retrenchment, each of which played out in ways that tended to extend the privileges of a protected childhood to white middle- and upper-class youth, while denying those protections to blacks, Latinos, and poor whites. On the forefront of both progressive and "get tough" reform campaigns, Texas has led national policy shifts in the treatment of delinquent youth to a surprising degree. Changes in the legal system have included the development of courts devoted exclusively to young offenders, the expanded legal application of psychological expertise, and the rise of the children's rights movement. At the same time, broader cultural ideas about adolescence have also changed. Yet the author demonstrates that as the notion of the teenager gained currency after World War II, white, middle-class teen criminals were increasingly depicted as suffering from curable emotional disorders even as the rate of incarceration rose sharply for black, Latino, and poor teens. He argues that despite the struggles of reformers, child advocates, parents, and youths themselves to make juvenile justice live up to its ideal of offering young people a second chance, the story of twentieth-century juvenile justice in large part boils down to the exclusion of poor and nonwhite youth from modern categories of childhood and adolescence.
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Item type Current location Call number Status Date due Barcode
Book University of Texas At Tyler
Stacks - 3rd Floor
HV9105.T4 B87 2010 (Browse shelf) Available 0000002089852

Includes bibliographical references and index.

Race, childhood, and juvenile justice history -- The other lost generation: reform and resistance in the juvenile training schools, 1907-1929 -- Socializing delinquency: child welfare, mental health, and the critique of institutions, 1929-1949 -- Juvenile rehabilitation and the color line: the training school for Black delinquent girls, 1943-1950 -- James Dean and Jim Crow: the failure of reform and the racialization of delinquency in the 1950s -- "Hard to reach" : the politics of delinquency prevention in postwar Houston -- Circling the wagons: the struggle over the Texas Youth Council, 1965-1971 -- Creating a right to treatment: Morales v. Turman, 1971-1988 -- The new American dilemma.

Using Texas as a case study for understanding change in the American juvenile justice system over the past century, the author tells the story of three cycles of scandal, reform, and retrenchment, each of which played out in ways that tended to extend the privileges of a protected childhood to white middle- and upper-class youth, while denying those protections to blacks, Latinos, and poor whites. On the forefront of both progressive and "get tough" reform campaigns, Texas has led national policy shifts in the treatment of delinquent youth to a surprising degree. Changes in the legal system have included the development of courts devoted exclusively to young offenders, the expanded legal application of psychological expertise, and the rise of the children's rights movement. At the same time, broader cultural ideas about adolescence have also changed. Yet the author demonstrates that as the notion of the teenager gained currency after World War II, white, middle-class teen criminals were increasingly depicted as suffering from curable emotional disorders even as the rate of incarceration rose sharply for black, Latino, and poor teens. He argues that despite the struggles of reformers, child advocates, parents, and youths themselves to make juvenile justice live up to its ideal of offering young people a second chance, the story of twentieth-century juvenile justice in large part boils down to the exclusion of poor and nonwhite youth from modern categories of childhood and adolescence.

Reviews provided by Syndetics

CHOICE Review

In 2007, the Texas Youth Commission (TYC) was at the center of an unfolding scandal involving the sexual abuse of teenage girls in its custody. In this timely and insightful study of juvenile justice in Texas, historian Bush (Texas A&M Univ.-San Antonio) establishes that recent trouble as the latest in a series of difficulties that have plagued the state's juvenile justice system since its founding at the end of the 19th century. The predecessor of the TYC, the Texas State Juvenile Training School, opened its doors in January 1889, the fruit of a three-year Woman's Christian Temperance Union campaign to separate juvenile from adult offenders in the Texas penal system. The new facility was, in theory, a place for the rehabilitation of youthful offenders through work and education. In reality, incarceration and brutality won out over the enlightened efforts of reformers again and again, culminating (hopefully) in a scandal of corruption, violence, and sexual abuse that surfaced in the TYC in 2007. Bush weaves the compelling story of this 110-year conflict between advocates of imprisonment and the proponents of rehabilitation at this troubled institution, observing that this is a story repeated nationwide as the US struggles to address the issue of juvenile justice. Summing Up:: Highly recommended. Most levels/libraries. C. D. Wintz Texas Southern University

Author notes provided by Syndetics

WILLIAM S. BUSH is a professor of history at Texas A&M University-San Antonio.

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